Presentation on theme: "AP World History The Mongols ( 3 rd Periodization)"— Presentation transcript:
AP World History The Mongols ( 3 rd Periodization)
Mongols (Around 1200-1550 CE) Basic Characteristics 1. Pastoral Nomadic Group 2. Originated in the Central Asian Steppes 3. Would create the world’s largest empire to date 4. Clan-Based Society (They were homies ) 5. Organized based on bloodlines 6. Genghis Khan ( Responsible for united various Mongol tribes) 7. Greatest Strength was their mobility (WHAT!!!!!!!)
It’s all about male mobilization Every Male from 15-70 had to serve in army and was rewarded with captured goods ( Yes, they stole from people they conquered, and gave it back to the people that originally took it- of course if the Khan didn’t want it) Military Strategy- retreat, as if they were beat and the turn around and resume attack ( They were “tricksters”) Masters of psychological warfare ( They liked to mess with people) Great Genghis Khan quote: “Submit and Live. Resist and Die”
The Mongols on the Move Under Khan the Mongols forced themselves onto settled societies Central Asia Tibet Northern China Persia 1215- reached present day Beijing Afghanistan 1227- Khan dies and his empire is divided amongst his four sons HORDES
1279- Grandson Time Kublai Khan defeats the Southern Song Dynasty and for the 1 st time ever in history, China was under foreign rule ( this would not last) Khan created a Chinese-Style dynasty ( He knew the Chinese people would mess him up, if they didn’t)- takes the name YUAN Fixed and regular tax payment system Strong central government Foreigners ( not Chinese ) were employed in the bureaucracy) For now: Bye-bye civil service exam The Chinese were subject to different laws and were consciously separated from the Mongols.
Grandson #2 Hulegu 1258- defeats the Abbasid Caliphate Mongols employed local bureaucrats in the gov’t and converted to Islam by 1295. Local rulers were permitted to Rule, as long as they delivered tax revenue and maintained order. Mongol culture mixed with conquered people As they moved West, they met their first and only major defeat ( remember they were strong- you did not want to mess with them). Armies of the Malmuks- a slave dynasty in Egypt defeated in 1260 and stopped the Mongols from penetrating that region.
The Golden Horde: Russia Mongol Ruler Batu- conquers and rules Russia while leaving in place a large number of local rulers. Heavily taxes peasants- but they were collected by Russian Bureaucrats. Trade was supported, and although they were Muslim and conversion was encouraged, missionaries were allowed to Visit!
The Pax Monglia Peak of Mongolian Power: huge areas of Asia and Europe were under one rule, there was a period of Mongol Peace. For almost a century ( That’s almost a 100 years people)- Mongol Rule united Two continents and allowed for relatively safe trade and contacts between very different cultures. How you Ask? Well maybe- They eliminated Tariffs! Trade on the Silk Road reached its greatest height (NOT JUST GOODS!) Paper Money ( Thank you Chinese!)- was used throughout the Mongol Empire Mongols converted to or adopted local religions ( or lets just say at least they were religiously tolerant)
Time to say goodbye Mongols The Mongolian Empire does Decline in spite of their generosity in lifting Tariffs and tolerating religions. From 1274-1281- Once again the Mongol are on the Move- they got greedy- and invaded Japan. Typhoon winds destroyed their fleets both times The Japanese believed these Kamikaze or sacred winds had protected them.
Final Mongol Thoughts They were successful conquerors but poor administrators Overspending let to inflation in different corners of the Empire The Death of Kublai, left them with weak and ineffective leadership. Rivalry among successors of the great Khan further destabilized the empire and vast domain was divided amongst generals By 1350- most of the Mongols huge territory had been re-conquered by other armies.