Presentation on theme: "The Mongol Empire The Mongols ruled the largest unified land empire in history. They were conquering Slavs in Russia and Muslims in Arabia- so all over."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Mongol EmpireThe Mongols ruled the largest unified land empire in history. They were conquering Slavs in Russia and Muslims in Arabia- so all over Asia, into Europe and the Middle East.
3 The Mongols Nomadic herders Mongols were organized into tribes that fought and raided each other for plunder, women and to avenge insults.Largely self-sufficientMongols lived in the grassy plains North of the Great Wall of China.
4 Accustomed to living in harsh environment, competing for scarce resources Average temperatures over most of the country are below freezing from November through March and are about freezing in April and October. January and February averages of -20° C are common, with winter nights of -40° C occurring most years. Summer extremes reach as high as 38° C in the southern Gobi region and 33° C in Ulaanbaatar. More than half the country is covered by permafrost, which makes construction, road building, and mining difficult. All rivers and freshwater lakes freeze over in the winter, and smaller streams commonly freeze to the bottom. The warmest month is July – high of 63 degrees.
5 Mongol males were trained from youth to ride, hunt, and fight Mongol males were trained from youth to ride, hunt, and fight. Their powerful short bows fired from horseback were devastating weapons.
6 Social OrganizationThe basic unit of social organization was the tribe, divided into kin- related clansMany small branches of Mongol groups- BEFORE it became an empire.
7 Mongols divided into separate clans, each led by a khan, chief. Khans rose to power through military skills, and ability to lead.Occasionally the title of Khan was passed down through bloodline.
8 Women No marriages were allowed between members of the same tribe. Each woman had their own separate household, owned property and had considerable freedom.Women rode, shot with bow and arrow, and hunted.They could give political advice and rise to the rank of chief, though rare.Women were often captured from other tribes (those that were not allies) and taken as wives. Men could also pick women in tribes that were allies. They would go and participate in a process when the women would line up and the male would survey each woman and choose which one best suited him.
9 The Universal Ruler1100s, Temujin, a powerful khan, began to conquer rivals, and unite Mongol clans.
10 Temujin faced a tough early life. At 9 years old, His father was poisoned by an enemy tribe.Temujin returned home to take the lead as Khan of his tribe, but members turned against him and abandoned his family.Not long after, Temujin was captured and served as a slave for the same enemies that killed his father.Temujin would be freed at the age of 16 and meet his wife.However, not long after his wife is kidnapped, again Temujin faces years of hardships.
11 Genghis Khan ( )1206, Temujin conquered his rivals. He took name Genghis Khan, “Universal Ruler”He set out to gain revenge. He went to capture back his wife Borte. Accounts say that when he started to gain power he was very good to the people that remained true to him- but very brutal to those that had ever served him wrong.
18 He rides a typically short and sturdy Mongolian pony, and carries a compound bow and spear. The warrior also is wearing authentic armor, including a helmet with a horsetail plume, and carrying a shield.
21 A trebuchet, a type of siege machine, used to hurl missiles over the walls of besieged cities. The Mongolian army under Genghis Khan and his descendants used these relatively light siege machines for easy mobility.The Mongols' siege warfare was incredibly effective. They took such cities as Beijing, Aleppo and Bukhara. The citizens of cities that surrendered without a fight were spared, but those who resisted usually were slaughtered.
23 The Mongol army conquered through the use of fear. Employed brutality, psychological warfare; burned towns, killed inhabitantsMany times enemies would surrender without a fight.
24 Every warrior traveled with 3-8 horses & could cover 300 miles in a day! The speed and mobility of the Mongol armies made them the worlds best, included both heavy and light cavalry
25 Conquest under Genghis Khan Genghis Khan set out to conquer the known world.
26 The Mongols developed new tactics for capturing urban centers, cities that resisted were destroyed and their inhabitants were killed or made slaves
27 Cities that submitted were required to pay tribute, ensuring safety. Mongols are portrayed as destructive conquerors, but generally people lived in peace, enjoyed religious tolerance, and had a unified law code.
28 Stability in AsiaMongol Empire established peace and stability across Asia.Some historians call period Pax Mongolica, “Mongol Peace”
29 People as well as, goods, and ideas flowed across Asia. Guarded trade routes across Asia, allowed trade to increase and flourish.People as well as, goods, and ideas flowed across Asia.Even after Ghenghis Khan’s Death, the Mongols were conquering many different territories
30 Fall of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan died in 1227By 1259, The empire was ruled by 4 main Khan’s.One ruled TurkestanOne ruled the former Islamic EmpireOne ruled RussiaThe last Great Khan ruled China- Kublai KhanEventually each of these rulers became more independent over time.
31 The Black Death greatly affected the population of the Mongol empire. Eventually, power began to decline.The Mongols began to lose much of China in 1368 to Ming rebels.The lost territory caused the Mongols to flee back to their homeland in Mongolia.