Presentation on theme: "The Mongol Empire 1206- 1368. 1294-Map."— Presentation transcript:
The Mongol Empire
The Mongols Nomadic herders Mongols were organized into tribes that fought and raided each other for plunder, women and to avenge insults. Largely self-sufficient
Accustomed to living in harsh environment, competing for scarce resources
Mongol males were trained from youth to ride, hunt, and fight. Their powerful short bows fired from horseback were devastating weapons.
Social Organization The basic unit of social organization was the tribe, divided into kin- related clans
Mongols divided into separate clans, each led by a khan, chief. Khans rose to power through military skills, and ability to lead. Occasionally the title of Khan was passed down through bloodline.
Women No marriages were allowed between members of the same tribe. Each woman had their own separate household, owned property and had considerable freedom. Women rode, shot with bow and arrow, and hunted. They could give political advice and rise to the rank of chief, though rare.
The Universal Ruler 1100s, Temujin, a powerful khan, began to conquer rivals, and unite Mongol clans.
Temujin faced a tough early life. At 9 years old, His father was poisoned by an enemy tribe. Temujin returned home to take the lead as Khan of his tribe, but members turned against him and abandoned his family. Not long after, Temujin was captured and served as a slave for the same enemies that killed his father. Temujin would be freed at the age of 16 and meet his wife. However, not long after his wife is kidnapped, again Temujin faces years of hardships.
Genghis Khan ( ) 1206, Temujin conquered his rivals. He took name Genghis Khan, “Universal Ruler”
He set out to build an empire and organized Mongols into powerful military machines. Strict discipline, demanded loyalty, rewarded those who pleased him.
Campaigns of Conquest Mongol forces began bloody campaign of conquest; highly mobile armies
The army was the core of society. All males, ages served in the army, all as cavalry. Absolute obedience was strictly enforced.
The Mongol army conquered through the use of fear. Employed brutality, psychological warfare; burned towns, killed inhabitants Many times enemies would surrender without a fight.
Every warrior traveled with 3-8 horses & could cover 300 miles in a day! The speed and mobility of the Mongol armies made them the worlds best, included both heavy and light cavalry
Conquest under Genghis Khan Genghis Khan set out to conquer the known world.
The Mongols developed new tactics for capturing urban centers, cities that resisted were destroyed and their inhabitants were killed or made slaves
Cities that submitted were required to pay tribute, ensuring safety. Mongols are portrayed as destructive conquerors, but generally people lived in peace, enjoyed religious tolerance, and had a unified law code.
Stability in Asia Mongol Empire established peace and stability across Asia. Some historians call period Pax Mongolica, “Mongol Peace”
Guarded trade routes across Asia, allowed trade to increase and flourish. People as well as, goods, and ideas flowed across Asia.
Fall of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan died in 1227 By 1259, The empire was ruled by 4 main Khan’s. One ruled Turkestan One ruled the former Islamic Empire One ruled Russia The last Great Khan ruled China- Kublai Khan Eventually each of these rulers became more independent over time.
The Black Death greatly affected the population of the Mongol empire. Eventually, power began to decline. The Mongols began to lose much of China in 1368 to Ming rebels. The lost territory caused the Mongols to flee back to their homeland in Mongolia.