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Hoofdstuk 1 Kroniek van de evolutiegedachte. ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE.

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Presentation on theme: "Hoofdstuk 1 Kroniek van de evolutiegedachte. ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hoofdstuk 1 Kroniek van de evolutiegedachte

2 ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE, By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., FELLOW OF THE ROYAL, GEOLOGICAL, ETC. SOCIETIES; AUTHOR OF ‘JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES DURING H.M.S. BEAGLE’S VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET The right of Translation, is reserved

3 1.Predarwiniaanse evolutiegedachten

4 Xenophanes ( vC) Anaximander ( vC)

5 Empedocles ( vC)

6 Plato

7 Aristoteles ‘de generatio animalium’

8 16de-17de eeuw Francis Bacon Galileo Galilei Tycho Brahe

9 16de-17de eeuw Francis Bacon Men of sharp wits, shut up in their cells of a few authors, chiefly Aristotle, their Dictator’

10 16de-17de eeuw Julien Offray de La Mettrie

11 Denis Diderot 16de-17de eeuw

12 George-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon ( ) “De la dégéneration des animaux” “Histoire naturelle” (44 vol)

13 Carolus Linnaeus ( )

14 Erasmus Darwin ( ) “Zoonomia” “The temple of nature”

15 ORGANIC LIFE beneath the shoreless waves Was born and nurs'd in Ocean's pearly caves; First forms minute, unseen by spheric glass, Move on the mud, or pierce the watery mass; These, as successive generations bloom, New powers acquire, and larger limbs assume; Whence countless groups of vegetation spring, And breathing realms of fin, and feet, and wing

16 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck ( ) “Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres” “Philosophie zoologique” sentiments interieurs

17 overerving van verworven karakteristieken training ongelukjes ziekten

18 tijd vorm transformationisme tijd vorm Darwin

19 Georges Cuvier ( )

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22 Richard Owen ( )

23 2. Darwin & Wallace

24 Charles Robert Darwin ( ) Alfred Russel Wallace ( )

25 Emma Wedgwood

26 Wedgwood China

27 H.M.S. Beagle

28 27 dec 1831

29 Rhea darwinii

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31 Galapagos spotlijster (Nesomimus spp.) Galapagos San Cristobál Santa Cruz Isabela Fernandina

32 2 okt 1836

33 28 sept 1838 “ the population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every 25 years, or increases in a geometrical ration” Thomas Malthus, Essay on the principle of population

34 Alfred Russel Wallace ( ) ‘On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinetely from the original type’

35 Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) Joseph Hooker (1817–1911)

36 ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE, By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., FELLOW OF THE ROYAL, GEOLOGICAL, ETC. SOCIETIES; AUTHOR OF ‘JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES DURING H.M.S. BEAGLE’S VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET The right of Translation, is reserved 1. Evolutie 2. Gemeenschappelijke afkomst 3. Multiplicatie van soorten 4. Graduele verandering 5. Natuurlijke selectie

37 Samuel WilberforceThomas Huxley

38 “l’Encyclique Humani generis [Pius XII, 1950] considérait la doctrine de l’ evolutionisme comme une hypothèse sérieuse, digne d’une investigation et d’une réflection approfondies à l’égal de l’hypothèse opposée … Aujourd’hui, (…) de nouvelles connaissances conduisent à reconnaître dans la théorie de l’évolution plus qu’une hypothèse” Message à l’acedémie pontificale des sciences L’Osservatore Romano, 29 okt 1996

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45 (Wetenschappelijke) tegenkantingen : 1. Overervingsmechanisme ???

46 (Wetenschappelijke) tegenkantingen : 1. Overervingsmechanisme ? 2. Complexiteit ? William Paley

47 Michael J. Behe William A. Dembski Intelligent Design

48 Any system of thought that denies or seeks to explain away the overwhelming evidence for design in biology is ideology, not science Christoph Schönborn, 2005

49 Both sides ought to be properly taught... so people can understand what the debate is about … Part of education is to expose people to different schools of thought. G. W. Bush, The New York Times, aug if schools also want to present students with intelligent design, I don't have any difficulty with that B. Nelson, aug. 2005

50 Ikzelf geloof evenmin in 'toeval'. Wat islam, jodendom, christendom verbindt is de gedachte dat er een 'schepper' is, …. Als we erin slagen om wetenschappers van verschillende geloofsrichtingen met elkaar te verbinden, kan het uiteindelijk misschien zelfs wel worden toegepast op scholen en in lessen. M. van der Hoeven, weblog, maart 2005

51 (Wetenschappelijke) tegenkantingen : 1. Overervingsmechanisme ? 3. Intermediaire stappen ? St George Jackson Mivart 2. Complexiteit ?

52 St George Jackson Mivart : "The genesis of species"

53 3. Mendel en de groei van de Nieuwe Synthese

54 Gregor Mendel ( )

55 glad/gerimpeld geel/groen wit/gekleurd geel/groen glad/bultig axiaal/apicaal lang/kort

56 Gregor Mendel ( ) Mendel, G. (1866). Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden. Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 4: 3-47

57 Hugo de Vries ( ) pangenen mutatie

58 William Bateson ( ) genetica segregatie heterozygoot homozygoot allelomorf

59 aantal lengte De ‘Biometrici’

60 Mendel de Vries Bateson Biometrici Fisher, Haldane, Wright De Nieuwe Synthese

61 Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher ( )

62 Sewall Green Wright ( )

63 John Burdon Sanderson Haldane ( ) An inordinate fondness for beetles

64 populatiegenetica Nieuwe synthese

65 Theodosius Dobzhansky ( ) H.B.D. Kettlewell ( )

66 populatiegenetica Nieuwe synthese systematiek

67 Ernst Mayr ( )

68 populatiegenetica Nieuwe synthese systematiek paleontologie

69 George Gaylord Simpson ( ) “Tempo and mode in evolution”

70 4. Verdere ontwikkelingen en conflicten

71 Motoo Kimura

72 Stephen Jay Gould “The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm” “Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism”

73 evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo)


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