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Hoofdstuk 1 Kroniek van de evolutiegedachte. ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE.

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Presentation on theme: "Hoofdstuk 1 Kroniek van de evolutiegedachte. ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hoofdstuk 1 Kroniek van de evolutiegedachte

2 ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION, OR THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR LIFE, By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., FELLOW OF THE ROYAL, GEOLOGICAL, ETC. SOCIETIES; AUTHOR OF ‘JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES DURING H.M.S. BEAGLE’S VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 1859. The right of Translation, is reserved

3 1.Predarwiniaanse evolutiegedachten

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5 Anaximander (610-546 vC)

6 Xenophanes (570-490 vC)

7 Empedocles (430-490 vC)

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9 Plato (424-348vC)

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11 Aristoteles (384-322 vC) ‘de generatio animalium’

12 16de-17de eeuw Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Tycho Brahe (1564-1601)

13 16de-17de eeuw ‘Men of sharp wits, shut up in their cells of a few authors, chiefly Aristotle, their Dictator’ Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

14 16de-17de eeuw Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751)

15 Denis Diderot (1713-1784) 16de-17de eeuw

16 George-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) ‘De la dégéneration des animaux’ ‘Histoire naturelle’ (44 vol)

17 Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1788)

18 Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) ‘Zoonomia’ ‘The temple of nature’

19 ORGANIC LIFE beneath the shoreless waves Was born and nurs'd in Ocean's pearly caves; First forms minute, unseen by spheric glass, Move on the mud, or pierce the watery mass; These, as successive generations bloom, New powers acquire, and larger limbs assume; Whence countless groups of vegetation spring, And breathing realms of fin, and feet, and wing

20 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829) “Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres” “Philosophie zoologique” sentiments interieurs

21 overerving van verworven karakteristieken

22 tijd vorm transformationisme tijd vorm Darwin

23 Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) Musée National d’Histoire Naturel

24 Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)

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26 Richard Owen (1804-1892)

27 Richard Owen (1804-1892)

28 Richard Owen (1804-1892)

29 James Hutton (1726-1796) uniformitarianisme

30 2. Darwin & Wallace 1. Predarwiniaanse evolutiegedachten

31 Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)

32 Emma Wedgwood (1801-1896)

33 Wedgwood China

34 H.M.S. Beagle

35 27 dec 1831

36 Rhea darwinii

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38 Galapagos spotlijster (Nesomimus spp.)

39 2 okt 1836

40 28 sept 1838 “ the population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every 25 years, or increases in a geometrical ration” Thomas Malthus, Essay on the principle of population

41 Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) ‘On the tendency of varieties to depart indefinetely from the original type’

42 Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) Joseph Hooker (1817–1911)

43 1. Evolutie 2. Gemeenschappelijke afkomst 3. Multiplicatie van soorten 4. Graduele verandering 5. Natuurlijke selectie

44 Samuel Wilberforce (1805-1873) Thomas Huxley (1825-1895)

45 “l’Encyclique Humani generis [Pius XII, 1950] considérait la doctrine de l’ evolutionisme comme une hypothèse sérieuse, digne d’une investigation et d’une réflection approfondies à l’égal de l’hypothèse opposée … Aujourd’hui, (…) de nouvelles connaissances conduisent à reconnaître dans la théorie de l’évolution plus qu’une hypothèse” Message à l’acedémie pontificale des sciences L’Osservatore Romano, 29 okt 1996 John Paul II

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54 (Wetenschappelijke) tegenkantingen : 1. Overervingsmechanisme?

55 (Wetenschappelijke) tegenkantingen : 1. Overervingsmechanisme? 2. Complexiteit? William Paley (1743-1805)

56 Michael J. Behe William A. Dembski Intelligent Design

57 Any system of thought that denies or seeks to explain away the overwhelming evidence for design in biology is ideology, not science Christoph Schönborn, 2005

58 ‘Both sides ought to be properly taught... so people can understand what the debate is about … Part of education is to expose people to different schools of thought.’ G. W. Bush, The New York Times, aug. 2005 ‘if schools also want to present students with intelligent design, I don't have any difficulty with that’ B. Nelson, aug. 2005

59 ‘Ikzelf geloof evenmin in 'toeval'. Wat islam, jodendom, christendom verbindt is de gedachte dat er een 'schepper' is, …. Als we erin slagen om wetenschappers van verschillende geloofsrichtingen met elkaar te verbinden, kan het uiteindelijk misschien zelfs wel worden toegepast op scholen en in lessen.’ M. van der Hoeven, weblog, maart 2005

60 (Wetenschappelijke) tegenkantingen : 1. Overervingsmechanisme? 3. Intermediaire stappen ? St George Jackson Mivart (1827-1900) 2. Complexiteit?

61 St George Jackson Mivart : ‘The genesis of species’

62 2. Darwin & Wallace 1. Predarwiniaanse evolutiegedachten 3. Mendel en de groei van de Nieuwe Synthese

63 Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

64 glad/gerimpeld geel/groen wit/gekleurd geel/groen glad/bultig axiaal/apicaal lang/kort

65 Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Mendel G. (1866). Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden. Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, 4: 3-47

66 Hugo de Vries (1848-1935) pangenen mutatie

67 William Bateson (1861-1926) genetica segregatie heterozygoot homozygoot allelomorf

68 aantal lengte De ‘Biometrici’

69 Mendel de Vries Bateson Biometrici Fisher, Haldane, Wright De Nieuwe Synthese

70 Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962)

71 Sewall Green Wright (1889-1988)

72 John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (1892-1964) An inordinate fondness for beetles

73 populatiegenetica Nieuwe synthese

74 Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975) H.B.D. Kettlewell (1901-1979)

75 populatiegenetica Nieuwe synthese systematiek

76 Ernst Mayr (1904-2005)

77 populatiegenetica Nieuwe synthese systematiek paleontologie

78 George Gaylord Simpson (1902-1984) “Tempo and mode in evolution”

79 2. Darwin & Wallace 1. Predarwiniaanse evolutiegedachten 3. Mendel en de groei van de Nieuwe Synthese 4. Verdere ontwikkelingen en conflicten

80 Motoo Kimura

81 Stephen Jay Gould “The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm” “Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism”

82 evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo)


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