2 4. Label the Galapagos Islands on your map 1. The process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms is called evolution.2. A well-supported explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world is a theory.3. Charles DarwinA. he was born in 1809B. He was an English naturalistD. The voyage lasted 5 years and took him around the world4. Label the Galapagos Islands on your map5. Darwin was looking for a scientific explanation for the diversity of life on Earth. True6. Observations Darwin madeA. An enormous number of species inhabit EarthD. Some species that lived in the past no longer live on Earth
3 7. The preserved remains of ancient organisms are called fossils. 8. He wondered why so many species had disappeared and how were they related to living species.9. Darwin thought that hood island had curved shells to allow them to reach sparse vegetation on their island whereas Isabela Island tortoises has dome shaped shells because vegetation there was more abundant and closer to the ground.10. Darwin observed the small brown birds on the Galapagos Islands differed in the shape of their beaks.11. Darwin thought about how the characteristics of many animals and plants varied among the different islands.12. Separate species evolved from a common ancestor after becoming isolated from one another on different islands of the Galapagos.
4 16-21. Two scientists who helped Darwin and others recognize how old Earth is were Hutton and Lyell.2. James HuttonB. Layers of rock are moved by forces beneath Earth’s surfaceC. Most geological processes operate extremely slowly3. Lyell’s workB. His work explained how awesome geological features could be built up or torn down over long periods of timeC. His publications helped Darwin appreciate the significance of the geological phenomena that he had observedD. He stressed that scientists must explain past events in terms of processes that they can actually observe4. Knowing that Earth could change over time helped Darwin believe that life might change as well. Knowing that Earth is very old assured Darwin that there was enough time for life to change.
5 11. The overwhelming majority of a species’ offspring survive. False 5. Lamarck was among the first scientists to recognize that living things have changed over time. True6. Lamarck proposed that all organisms have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection. True7. Lamarck proposed that when animals use or don’t use certain organs acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime there traits are passed on to their offspring.8. Lamarck was one of the first scientists to propose the hypotheses of evolution and adaptation9. Step 310. Thomas MalthusA. He was an important influence on DarwinC. He believed that war, famine, and disease limit the growth of populations.11. The overwhelming majority of a species’ offspring survive. False
6 3. Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species 16-31. When Darwin returned to England, he rushed to publish his thoughts about evolution. False2. The naturalist whose essay gave Darwin an incentive to publish his own was Wallace.3. Darwin’s book On the Origin of SpeciesC. It contained evidence for evolutionD. It described natural selection4. Differences among individuals of a species are referred to as variation.5. Genetic variation is found only in wild organisms in nature. False6. Artificial SelectionC. It produces organisms that look very different from their ancestorsD. It is no longer used today
7 7. Developing a scientific hypothesis for evolution 8. Fitness – C. The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its specific environment9. Adaptation – A. Any inherited characteristic that increases an organism’s chance of survival10. Natural selection – B. Survival of the fittest11. Members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities12. Adaptations can be physical characteristics but not more complex features such as behavior. False13. Individuals better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully.
8 18. Evidence of evolution can be found in 14. Natural SelectionA. It selects traits that increase fitnessB. It takes place without human control15. The principle that living species descend, with changes, from other species over time is referred to as descent with modification.16. The principle that all species were derived from common ancestors is known as common descent.17. Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for thousands of years. False18. Evidence of evolution can be found inThe fossil recordGeographic distributionHomologous structureEmbryology
9 19. They document the fact that life on Earth has changed over time. 20. Distribution of finches on the GalapagosA. They had descended with modification from a common mainland ancestor21. Species evolve features in common because they were exposed to similar pressure of natural selection22. Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissues are called homologous structures.23. Homologous structures provide strong evidence that all four-limbed vertebrates have descended, with modifications, from common ancestors. True24. Organs that are so reduced in size that are just vestiges, or traces, of homologous organs in other species are called vestigial structures.
10 25. Darwin’s theory of evolution A. There is a variation in natureC. There is a struggle for existenceD. Species change over time26. Individuals die or leave fewer offspring27. Darwin believed that all organisms on Earth are united into a single tree of life by descent with modification.28. They have been confirmed and expanded by scientific advances in biology, geology, and physics.