Presentation on theme: "Nested Hierarchies, the Order of Nature: Carolus Linnaeus Swedish Naturalist Influenced by Aristotle’s “Great Chain of Being” Linnaeus’ Artificial System."— Presentation transcript:
Nested Hierarchies, the Order of Nature: Carolus Linnaeus Swedish Naturalist Influenced by Aristotle’s “Great Chain of Being” Linnaeus’ Artificial System of Classification “All for the Glory of GoD”
Nested Hierarchies, the Order of Nature: Carolus Linnaeus Systema Naturae (1735) Polynomial Name to Binomial Name (Genus specific epithet) Species-Genus-Family-Order- Class- Division/Phylum-Kingdom
The Ecology of Human Populations: Thomas Malthus Population Growth vs. Food Supply An Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society(1798) Between 1800 and 2000 the human population increased about six-fold. Has the food supply kept pace? Will there be enough food to support the projected population of 9.2 billion in 2050?
Early Concepts of Evolution: Jean Baptiste Lamarck French Naturalist Species changed over time into new species via natural processes Lamarckian Theory of Evolution: Theory of Use and Disuse and Theory of Acquired Inheritance Ladder Type Evolution
Extinctions & Paleontology: Georges Cuvier Catastrophist Fossils became popular “Some species had actually vanished from the face of the earth”, and so EXTINCTION Cuvier was a legendary anatomist Mass extinction
Uniformitarianism: Charles Lyell Gradualism(James Hutton )+ added ideas= uniformitarianism Geological processes operating in the past are still operational today! The Earth is old!
Discrete Genes Are Inherited: Gregor Mendel Science of Heredity using garden peas 22 pea varieties using 7 character traits Blending inheritance vs. laws of heredity Mendel’s work goes unrecognized even Darwin himself 15 years have to wait before scientists realized the answer to one of life’s greatest mysteries! “Father of Genetics”
Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life” (1859) First Synthetic Theory of Evolution Pressure of population growth by Malthus is applicable to other organisms
Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace Darwin’s Finches Selection of Traits: key to survival in all struggling organisms in a finite environment Wallace and Darwin maintained correspondence A joint paper was published at the Linnaean Society of London Darwin and Wallace developed similar theory, but Darwin amassed more evidences and published a book.
Rediscovering the Laws of Heredity: de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak De Vries Correns Tschermak
DNA, the Language of Evolution: Francis Crick & James Watson James WatsonFrancis Crick Life was encoded in GENES DNA structure was inferred from a top view X-ray Life’s Cookbook Mutation as the raw material of EVOLUTION was well understood with the dawn of the DNA molecule
Reference: Understanding Evolution. University of California Museum of Paleontology