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Why did Henry VIII marry six times? Year 7. Why did Henry keep on getting married? Did Henry VIII marry for PERSONAL reasons or POLITICAL reasons? PERSONAL.

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Presentation on theme: "Why did Henry VIII marry six times? Year 7. Why did Henry keep on getting married? Did Henry VIII marry for PERSONAL reasons or POLITICAL reasons? PERSONAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Why did Henry VIII marry six times? Year 7

2 Why did Henry keep on getting married? Did Henry VIII marry for PERSONAL reasons or POLITICAL reasons? PERSONAL = to do with his emotions and own feelings. POLITICAL = to do with running the country and keeping it under the king’s control. Click on Henry for more on the kind of man he was.

3 Catherine of Aragon ( ) She was the daughter of the King of Spain. Henry knew that he might have to fight a war with the King of France and that he would need all the help he could get.war with the King of France Henry wanted a son to follow him as King. What happened? Catherine gave birth to a daughter – Mary – but by 1533 was too old to have any more children. (She had been married to Henry for 24 years.) Henry divorced her.

4 Anne Boleyn ( ) She was a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting (assistant) to the queen. Henry wanted a son to follow him as King. What happened? Catherine gave birth to a daughter – Elizabeth, but when she became pregnant again her baby boy was born already dead. Henry executed her.

5 Jane Seymour ( ) She was a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting (assistant) to the queen. Henry wanted a son to follow him as King. What happened? Jane gave birth to a son – Edward, but she became ill soon after his birth and died a few weeks later.

6 Anne of Cleves (1540) She was the daughter of a powerful German prince. Henry thought the King of France might try to invade England. Henry needed all the help he could get to fight this threat.King of France might try to invade England Henry was shown this picture of her and thought she was pretty. What happened? When Henry actually met her, he called her the ‘Mare of Flanders’ – in other words he thought she had a face like a horse. Henry divorced her.

7 Catherine Howard ( ) She was a young and beautiful lady-in- waiting (assistant) to the queen. What happened? Katherine was accused of having affairs with other men. Henry executed her.

8 Katherine Parr ( ) Henry was quite old now and often ill. He did not enjoy being on his own. Henry had three children and he wanted someone to help him look after them. What happened? Katherine was a good stepmother to Henry’s children. She helped to patch up a big argument he had with his daughter Mary. Henry died before her, and she re-married, but she carried on looking after Henry’s youngest daughter Elizabeth.

9 Henry VIII’s England and other countries ENGLAND SCOTLAND (FRANCE’S ally) FRANCE SPAIN GERMAN PRINCES (Mostly PROTESTANT) NETHERLANDS (belongs to SPAIN) ITALIAN PRINCES (Allies with FRANCE or SPAIN NAPLES (belongs to SPAIN) ROME (POPE) English Channel Mediterranean Sea

10 Religion and Henry’s six marriages Catherine of Aragon had been married to Henry’s older brother, Arthur. When he died, the Pope gave special permission for Henry to marry his brother’s widow. As time went on Henry wondered if God was punishing him for doing this by not giving him a son. He knew that parts of the Bible said it was wrong to marry your brother’s widow. The Pope refused to allow Henry to divorce Catherine of Aragon. She was the King of Spain’s aunt and the Pope did not want to upset him. Henry got round this problem by making himself the head of the Church in England – effectively he could now allow himself to get divorced! Those who followed the Protestant side of Christianity believed he could do this, so England became a Protestant country. The Protestant Church had started in Germany, so most of the German Princes were Protestants. They were the obvious rulers for Henry to try to make an alliance with after England became a Protestant country as they were also opposed to the Catholic Kings of Spain and France. Apart from Germany, there were very few other protestant countries, so it is not surprising that most of Henry’s wives were English – Catholic rulers were not keen to be related to the Protestant King of England. What were the religious beliefs of Henry VIII’s wives? Catherine of Aragon – Catholic – longest marriage Anne Boleyn - Protestant Jane Seymour - Protestant Anne of Cleves – Protestant – shortest marriage Catherine Howard - Catholic Katherine Parr - Protestant

11 Why did Henry VIII marry six times? Year 7 History Summer Assessment Assignment

12 How to do your assignment Look at the evidence for why Henry married each one of his six wives: Ask yourself: ‘What do the different reasons for Henry’s marriages tell me about why he married so many times?’ and ‘What is the most convincing explanation for why he would do this?’ Complete the answer sheet on Why did Henry VIII marry six times? (If you type this on a computer it is easier to make your answers to the questions more detailed or improve your final conclusion.) You will talk about how you can improve your answers with other pupils and get advice on how to do this from your teacher. You will make the improvements to your answers and hand them in again to your teacher. Now you will be given a mark for your final piece of work.

13 Assignment Checklist: What should your answer include? Does your answer explain why Henry married six times? Do you trust what the answers tell you? Why? What needs to be added to your answers to make them more convincing? –More detail about Henry and his wives? –More detail about the specific reasons for Henry’s marriages? –More explanation in your conclusion about the reasons for Henry’s marriages changed and why he married so many times?

14 How your work will be marked LEVEL 3 The answer does not follow the guidelines your teacher gave you for organising your answer. Little evidence is used to back up points made about Henry’s marriages. The conclusion does not show how you have used the evidence to work out why Henry married six times, including the importance of different reasons. LEVEL 4 The answer follows the guidelines your teacher gave you for organising your answer, including the conclusion. Enough evidence is used (at least four examples) to back up points made about Henry’s marriages, but it is not explained in detail. The conclusion shows how you have used the evidence to work out why Henry married six times, including the importance of different reasons. LEVEL 5 The answer follows the guidelines your teacher gave you for organising your answer, including the conclusion. Detailed evidence is used (at least six examples) to back up points made about Henry’s marriages, and it is clearly explained. The parts played by political and personal reasons and religion in causing Henry to marry so many times and in deciding Henry whom was to marry have been discussed. The conclusion shows how you have used the evidence to work out why Henry married six times, including the importance of different reasons. LEVEL 6 The answer follows the guidelines your teacher gave you for organising your answer, including the conclusion. Detailed evidence is used (at least six examples) to back up points made about Henry’s marriages, and it is clearly explained. The parts played by political and personal reasons and religion in causing Henry to marry so many times and in deciding Henry whom was to marry have been explained thoroughly. The conclusion shows how you have used the evidence to work out why Henry married six times, including a highly convincing discussion of the importance of different reasons.

15 Wars with France Henry did go to war with France twice ( and 1523) along with Spain as his ally : Henry beat a French army at the ‘Battle of the Spurs’ and captured two cities – Therouanne & Tournai. At the same time the Scots (France’s ally) were totally defeated at the Battle of Flodden, when they attacked the north of England. 1523: Henry attacked France again to help his ally the King of Spain – the war did not go well for Henry and he gained nothing when he made peace with France. After that Henry was not so worried about France and started to wonder if he really needed Spain as an ally any more. The King of Spain (Charles V) certainly did not seem to need Henry – by 1529, Charles was the most powerful ruler in Europe. (Return to Catherine of Aragon)

16 War with France again By 1538 Henry was worried that France might try to attack England. France was not at war with Spain at the time and so could threaten him. Now England was a Protestant country Henry was afraid that France and Spain (both Catholic countries) would join forces against him! Henry did all he could to get ready for the French invasion: - He borrowed lots of money. - He built coastal castles and harbour defences all along the south coast. - He hired foreign mercenaries (soldiers who fight for money). - He strengthened the navy. - He tried to get the support of German Protestant princes, who could threaten France from the east. This included his marriage to Anne of Cleves (1540). - He attacked Scotland (France’s ally) in 1542 & 1544 to stop them from helping the French. - Finally in 1544, he made a new alliance with the King of Spain (Charles V). In 1544, Henry attacked France before they attacked him: he sent an army to take Boulogne. In 1545 France finally sent a fleet of ships to attack England. The English navy was waiting for them. The ships fired a few shots at each other and the French fleet turned round and went home. Henry had kept England safe from invasion. When Henry and the King of France made peace in 1546, Henry kept Boulogne for the next 8 years. After that the King of France would buy the town back from him. (Return to Anne of Cleves)

17 What kind of man was Henry VIII ( )? Proud Soldier – brave & strong Musician Sportsman Ambitious Liked fine clothes Well-educated Religious Determined Liked to have good time Big – muscular when young, fat when old (Back to Henry’s picture)


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