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EQUINE REPRODUCTION. TERMINOLOGY s BOOK s BOOKING FEES s STUD FEE s FOAL GUARANTEE sLive Foal sReturn sColor s WET/DRY CARE s BREEDER sThoroughbred sOther.

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Presentation on theme: "EQUINE REPRODUCTION. TERMINOLOGY s BOOK s BOOKING FEES s STUD FEE s FOAL GUARANTEE sLive Foal sReturn sColor s WET/DRY CARE s BREEDER sThoroughbred sOther."— Presentation transcript:

1 EQUINE REPRODUCTION

2 TERMINOLOGY s BOOK s BOOKING FEES s STUD FEE s FOAL GUARANTEE sLive Foal sReturn sColor s WET/DRY CARE s BREEDER sThoroughbred sOther breeds s DEATH & SALES CLAUSE s CHUTE FEE

3 Stallion Physiology Onset of sexual maturity10-24 mo Life span of sperm in female tract 2-4 days Survival time with fertilizing capacity 1-2 days Sperm output Semen volume/ejaculate ml Sperm concentration X ml # sperm/ejaculate X

4 Sperm Production Sperm Output and Production is influenced by: –Season –Testicular size –Age –Frequency of ejaculation –Behavior

5 Number of Sperm Depends On: Seasonal Influences (Photoperiod) –Effected Areas Ejaculate volume Sperm numbers Total sperm/ejaculate Sperm motility Willingness to breed Mounts before breeding Scrotal size Testosterone production

6 Mare Anatomy Vulva Vagina Cervix Uterus Oviducts Ovaries Left Ovary Oviduct Left Uterine Horn Uterine Body CervixVagina

7 TERMS Anestrus Diestrus Estrous Estrus MARE CLASSIFICATION Pregnant Open Barren Maiden Wet Dry MARES

8 The Open Mare Evaluate reproductive history Establish the time of year to breed Mare Plan: –Diagnose possible problems –Implement problem management –Establish estrus calendar

9 Mares Cycle Percent

10 Photoperiod Effect Reproductive activity in spring is stimulated by an increasing photoperiod Mechanism –Alteration of hormone secretion by the pineal gland and hypothalamus

11 Receptors in eye Pineal gland Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Ovaries Increasing day length Decreasing day length Neuropathway Decreasing melatoninIncreasing melatonin Increasing GnRHDecreasing GnRH Increasing gonadotropins Decreasing gonadotropins J F M A M J J A S O N D

12 Transition Period Increased photoperiod stimulates the hypothalamus and pituitary Pituitary hormones (especially FSH) induce follicular development

13 Transition 1-3 waves of follicles develop & regress Estrogens produced by developing follicles Irregular/prolonged estrus exhibited 1 follicle eventually ovulates Thereafter, mares ovulate at ~21-day intervals

14 21-day estrous cycle Estrus 5-7 d Diestrus d

15 Estrous Cycle SunMonTueWedThuFriSat

16 Estrus Follicular Development & Ovulation Anterior Pituitary – FSH - follicular growth Pituitary – LH – maturation of follicle & ovulation Follicles reach mm in diameter, secrete estrogen.

17 Prediction of Ovulation Number of days in heat Growth rate of largest follicle –Average 3-5 mm/day Size of largest follicle Softness of preovulatory follicle Ultrasound image

18 Diestrus Corpus Luteum Formation Corpus luteum - secretion of progesterone. Progesterone - responsible for keeping the mare out of heat and for maintaining pregnancy. Prostaglandin Release Prostaglandin (PGF) - released from the uterus of a non- pregnant mare days after ovulation

19 Postpartum Estrus Foal Heat Fertile as compared to other species. Breeding may be necessary to maintain the 12 mo. Foaling interval. May be necessary to back up foaling.

20 Signs of Estrus Most consistent –Elevated tail raise –Winking Other supporting signs –Leaning –Squatting –Standing still –Urinating

21 Manipulation Methods u Artificial lighting u Shortening Late Transition u Inducing Ovulation u Estrus synchronization u Estrus Synchronization & Ovulation Induction

22 Light Stimulus 16 hrs daylight per day days

23 Progesterone or related compounds l Regumate – most common l Normalization of estrus l Regulation of estrus l Estrus synchronization l Long-term suppression of estrus l Delay foal heat l Pregnancy maintenance

24 PGF 2 Lutalayse or Estrumate u Shorten the interval between estrous periods u Treatment of a maintained corpus luteum u After foal heat u Estrous synchronization with prostaglandins

25 Breeding Methods Pasture Breeding Hand Breeding Artificial Insemination –Fresh semen –Cooled, shipped semen –Frozen semen

26 Cooled Shipped Semen ADVANTAGES Cost Genetics Disease DISADVANTAGES Cost Technology/manage ment Stallion variability Common Problems Inability to obtain semen Poor quality semen Reordering semen Failure to predict ovulation

27 Frozen Semen Success of Frozen Semen –Fertility of stallions semen –Fertility of the mare –Skill of the veterinarian/technician Maximum Success –Client communication –Choose ideal candidate –History of stallion

28 Embryo Transfer Synchronization of donor and recipient mare Embryo flushing Embryo transfer procedure

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30 TEN FACTORS INFLUENCING PREGNANCY & PREGNANCY LOSS PER CYCLE u MARE AGE u BARREN REPRODUCTIVE STATUS u EARLY BREEDING DATE u LATE BREEDING DATE u BREEDING FREQUENCY u PROSTAGLANDIN FACTOR u UTERINE CULTURE & CYTOLOGY u EFFECT OF SEMEN EXTENDER u POST-BREEDING ANTIBIOTIC INFUSIONS u TWINS

31 Pregnancy Evaluation Ultrasound, days –ID twins –ID placental development Re-evaluate, 40 days Monitor Placental function & fetal growth

32 Gestation Length Normal: days

33 GROWTH CURVE Gestation age in days CR in cm

34 Late Pregnancy Abdomen greatly enlarged Ventral edema Mammary gland enlargement – 2-4 wk Gluteal muscles relax – 7-10 d Teats fill with milk – 4-7 d Waxing of teat ends – 1-4 d Vulva soft & relaxed – 1-2 d

35 Stages of Parturition Stage 1 –Onset: initial uterine contractions –End: rupture of chorioallantois (water bag) Stage 2 –Onset: rupture of chorioallantois –End: delivery of fetus

36 Stages of Parturition Stage 3 (< 3 hrs) –Onset: delivery of fetus –End: passage of the fetal membranes

37 Foals and Immunity Colostrum (first milk) - antibodies 1-2 pts of high quality colostrum If adequate passive transfer occurs there will be over mg/dl IgG in foals blood Takes ~ 12 hours for all antibodies ingested in colostrum to show up in the blood

38 Key points First two weeks- lay the groundwork by ensuring adequate colostrum Preventative health program in place Appropriate nutrition Problems must be addressed rapidly when they arise. No time for a wait and see attitude

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