3Animal Reproduction Basics The process by which offspring are produced.Offspring are of same species & have similar traitsNot essential for an organism to live but is essential if a species is to stay in existence
4Animal Reproduction Basics InseminationPlacing of the sperm in the reproductive tract of the female.Natural InseminationThe process of the male depositing semen (fluid containing sperm) in the reproductive tract of the female.Occurs during copulation or matingCopulationThe sexual union of a male and female animal
5Animal Reproduction Basics Artificial InseminationInvolves a technician collecting semen from a male and placing it in the reproductive tract of a female
7Animal Reproduction Basics BreedingIs promoting animal reproduction so the desired offspring result.Reproductive EfficiencyThe timely and prolific replacement of a species.This is the difference between success and failure in animal production.
8Estrous Estrous Cycle Anestrus The time between periods of estrus Estrous cycle of female mammals has four periodsCyclical expect during gestation or pregnancy (cattle or swine)Some animals are seasonal breeds and may go through periods of anestrusAnestrusThe absence of cyclingOften related to the number of hours of light in a dayExamples: Sheep, cats, goats and horses
9Four Periods of the Estrous Cycle EstrusAlso known as heatPeriod when the female is receptive to the male and will stand for matingLength varies between speciesTriggered by the hormone estrogenChanges that take place during estrusRestlessnessMucus dischargeSwollen vulvaStanding to be ridden by other animalsOvulation takes place during estrus for most speciesOvulation-when a mature ovum is released by the ovary
10Four Periods of the Estrous Cycle MetestrusOvulation occurs during metestrus in cattle and goats.The luteinizing hormone triggers the corpus lutea to develop from follicular tissue that remains after the release of the ova
11Four Periods of the Estrous Cycle DiestrusPeriod in the cycle in which the system assumes pregnancy.Fully functional corpus luteum releases high levels of progesterone.Progesterone-hormone that maintains pregnancyUterus is prepared for pregnancy
12Four Periods of the Estrous Cycle ProestrusBegins with the regression of the corpus luteum and a drop in the hormone progesteroneChanges in behavior may occur as estrus approaches
14Fertilization The union of a sperm and an egg. The “roadmap” for fertilization is different between mammals based upon their reproductive tract.Process begins by male mammal depositing sperm in female mammal’s reproductive tract during mating.
15Fertilization Continued After sperm is deposited, sperm gradually travels through the female’s reproductive tract until it reaches the infundibulum (where ovum rest during ovulation)Sperm cell pierces an egg cell if presentOnly one sperm cell may fertilize an egg cellCrucial to time the presence of eggs cells and live sperm cells in a mammal.After an egg cell is released in a female mammal’s reproductive tract it has less than 12 hours to become fertilized by a sperm cell.Sperm cells cannot survive a long duration in a female mammal’s reproductive tract.
17Gestation After fertilization occurs gestation begins Gestation The period of time in which an animal is pregnantGestation periods vary between species
18Gestation ProcessAfter fertilization occurs gestation continues as a series of cell divisions as the new animal (embryo) moves towards the uterus within 3-4 days.Embryo engages in rapid growth cycle called differentiationDevelops major organs in the embryoAfter differentiation the new animals is known as a fetus
19Gestation Process Continued At this point fetus is surrounded by watery fluid enclosed in membranesGrows slowly in the uterusFetus has an umbilical cord that is connected from its navel to the placenta, which lie along the wall of the uterus.Umbilical cord connection:Blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to fetusExit waste productsThe head, nervous system and blood vessels develop firstMajority of the growth of the fetus occurs in the last stage of the gestation period.
20ParturitionThe process of a pregnant organism or animal giving birth to fetusAkalaborThree steps of ParturitionStart of uterine contractions and the reproductive organs prepare for the birthing process.Birth canal begins to openFemale ‘s muscles begin to relax as fetus prepares to passFetus begins to align with the canal and the mother’s respiratory rate increasesAbdominal muscular contractions occur and mother starts to pass the fetus.Fluid is released from the uterine body as lubricant.Stage concludes with the birth of the fetus.Expulsion of the placentaMother's straining ends and she begins to relaxPlacenta detaches from the uterine wall and fetal membranes are released.