Presentation on theme: "Reproduction in the Dog. Reproductive Tract of the Bitch Ovary Oviduct Uterine Horn Uterine Body Cervix Vagina Vulva Clitoris Fossa Clitoridis Urethral."— Presentation transcript:
Reproduction in the Dog
Reproductive Tract of the Bitch Ovary Oviduct Uterine Horn Uterine Body Cervix Vagina Vulva Clitoris Fossa Clitoridis Urethral Opening Constrictor Vestibuli
Physiology of the Ovarian Cycle in the Bitch Puberty In most bitches begins at 6 to 9 months of age. Ovarian Cycle in the bitch is monoestrous. Interval from cycle to cycle varies among breeds and can be affected by environmental cues. Range: 4 to 13 Months Average: 7 Months
Ovarian Cycle is Divided into Four Stages A. Proestrus B. Estrus Physical turgid swelling of vulva and appearance of a bloody discharge. Vaginal cytology will change with very early non-cornified epithelial cells increasing towards end of proestrus. Behavior - bitch is restless and secretes pheromones but is aggressively negative towards male becoming more passive towards start of estrus Vulva swelling will soften and discharge will be slightly pink to straw- colored. Some females will still have a bloody discharge in estrus which is normal. Vaginal cytology will have a high concentration of cornified epithelial cells with little debris. Behavior - bitch seeks male turns hindquarters towards him, raises pelvic region, waves tail to one side and finally stands for mating by male. Wolf Heat - (split heat) Have apparently normal heat but go out of heat without ovulation. Followed by another heat 2-6 weeks later (Fertile Heat)
C. Metestrus D. Anestrus Pseudopregnancy Loss of vulva swelling and no discharge. Vaginal cytology is no cornified cells and high numbers of White Blood Cells. Behavior - non-acceptance of male Period of ovarian inactivity and no vaginal discharge Will not return to heat again until at least 4 months Extension of metestrus period in which progesterone concentrations remain elevated. Female will have nest building behavior and enlarged mammary glands.
Endocrinology of the Estrous Cycle in the Bitch Higher Brain Centers Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary Ovary GnRH FSH LH EstrogenProgesterone
Changes During Estrus of Bitch Proestrus Estrus Aggressive towards Male Passive Provides sexual posturing to male for copulation Bloody discharge from vulva Copulation Vulva Swollen and Enlarged Indicates Day of Peak in LH
Hormonal Patterns During Estrous Cycle of Bitch Arbitrary Plasma Concentrations Days from LH Peak Estrogen LH Progesterone Ovulation Fertile Period Completion of Meiosis I Fertilization
Ovulation: Fertilization: Ova are released from the follicles approximately two to three days following initiation of LH surge. Ovulated ova are not ready for fertilization (must complete Meiosis I) and therefore are not fertilized until Day 4 to 7 following the LH surge.
B. LH Peak C. Plasma Progesterone Baseline Progesterone = 1 ng/ml Day Preceding Ovulation = 3-4 ng/ml Day of Ovulation = 4-8 ng/ml The greatest number of ovulations occur 24 to 72 hours after the LH peak. Breeding can be timed from the LH Peak to the fertile period 4 to 7 days later. Plasma progesterone concentrations rise prior to ovulation in the bitch. This occurs because follicles will start luteinization before ovulation. Measurement of serum progesterone concentration can be used as a means to determine day of ovulation and breeding but concentrations can be highly variable and the following are only guidelines.
Arbitrary Plasma Concentrations Days of Pregnancy Mating Parturition Progesterone Prolactin Corticosteroids Total Estrogens Hormone Concentrations During Pregnancy and Parturition
Breeding Dog achieves intromission by vigorous thrusting of the hindquarters. The bulbus glandis swells (6X4 cm) in the vagina in which vulva sphincter muscles contract around the penis forming the copulatory “tie”. First Stage of Coitus The “Turn” Second Stage of Coitus
Behavior of bitch is one of nest building, restlessness and seeking quiet, out of sight areas. Vulva becomes swollen, edematous and may have some vaginal discharge. Relaxation of pelvic and abdominal muscles is a consistent sign of impending parturition. Presence of milk in mammary gland is not an accurate sign. Decrease in body temperature from 38 to 37 o C just before parturition. Signs of Impending Parturition
Parturition First Stage of Labor Averages 4 hours but can last 6-12 hours Period in which the cervix dilates Bitch will be uneasy, refuse food, pant, vomiting and frequently looking at flank. Visible straining of bitch in the sitting position and back against the box. Placental membrane will break and there will be fluid discharge from vulva. Amnion covering the pup will be visible as it passes through the cervix, vagina and out the vulva. Membrane will rupture spontaneously or through licking of dam. After the start of labor (active contractions) first fetus cannot be expected to survive more than 6 hours in the uterus. Fetuses should be delivered within 2 hours of each other. Usually interval between puppies is about 30 minutes. Second State of Labor
Third Stage of Labor Passage of fetal membranes should take 5 to 15 minutes. Dystocia Definition: Any problem with delaying normal birth of fetus. Symptoms Abnormal fetal presentation, position or posture Strong and persistent labor for 20 minutes without delivery of fetus. Weak and infrequent contractions for 2 to 3 hours More than 4 hours from delivery of last fetus (if not last one) Most common problem is uterine inertia (weak contractions), size of fetus and birth canal.