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Animal Reproduction Female Reproductive System Jr/Sr Veterinary Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Reproduction Female Reproductive System Jr/Sr Veterinary Science."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Animal Reproduction Female Reproductive System Jr/Sr Veterinary Science

3 Function To create and support new life

4 Structures Ovary: –Paired Primary Female Reproductive Organ –Produce eggs (ova or oocytes) & hormones Oviducts: –AKA “Fallopian Tubes” –Carries egg from ovary to uterus –Site of fertilization Infundibulum: –Funnel-like structure which “catches” a released egg & brings it to the oviduct

5 Structures Uterus/Uterine Horns: –Thick, muscular organ where fertilized egg develops into a fetus before birth Cervix: –Prevents foreign material from entering uterus –Forms a mucus plug during pregnancy Vagina: –Semen is deposited during copulation –Part of birth canal & urinary system

6 Structures Urethra: –Brings urine from the bladder to the vagina Vulva: –External female genitalia –Contains clitoris, sensitive tissue stimulated during mating Mammary Glands –Milk-producing glands in females –Called “udder” or “teats”

7 Species Differences Sow: Convoluted uterine horns, corkscrew cervix Cow & Ewe: Prominent uterine horns. Cervical Rings Mare: Smooth cervix, “ovulation fossa” “Folds” Bitch: Slender uterine horns Doe Rabbit: Two cervixes: Bicornate

8 Ovulation Female Gamete: egg, (ova or oocyte) Follicle: site on ovary that contains an egg –Primary Follicle: earliest stage –Maturing Follicle: developing stage –Graafian Follicle: dominant & about to ovulate –Corpus Luteum: “scar,” forms after ovulation at old Graafian follicle site

9 Ovulation, con’t Oogenesis: –Development & production of eggs (ova) Monotocous: –non-litter bearing species; 1 dominant follicle Polytocous: –litter-bearing species; several follicles develop

10 Hormones GnRH: stimulates production of LH & FSH FSH: stimulates follicle to develop & release of estrogen. Develops yolk and secretes estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen: brings on heat cycle, causes development of secondary sex characteristics, stimulates release of LH LH: causes ovulation (release of egg from follicle) & development of corpus luteum

11 Hormones, con’t Progesterone: secreted by the corpus luteum (CL); maintains pregnancy: Yellow body. Prevents FSH and LH production. Inhibits secretion of GnRH by blocking further ovarian activity. Prostaglandin: secreted by uterus if animal is not pregnant; causes regression of CL

12 Estrous Cycle Proestrus: follicle matures to release egg Estrus: egg is released by ovary, female is sexually receptive Metestrus: period after ovulation, while CL is developing; will often bleed from the vulva (cows) Diestrus: corpus luteum becomes active Anestrus: not cycling

13 Variations in Estrous Cycles Monoestrous: one estrus in a breeding season or year Polyestrous: are in estrus more than once in a breeding season or year Seasonal breeders: are in estrus only certain times of the year, by daylight –ex: sheep: fall (decreasing daylight) –horses: March – October (increasing daylight)

14 Signs of Estrus Cow: stands to be mounted, swollen vulva Sow: stands to be mounted, grunting Ewe: Seeking ram, enlarged vulva Mare: “winking” of the vulva, frequent urination, raised tail, nervous behavior Bitch:change in behavior, bloody discharge, acceptance of male Cat: howling

15 Gestation Conception: formation of an embryo, resulting from fertilization Gestation: length of time from conception to birth Gravid: animal is confirmed pregnant Parturition: act of giving birth Delivery: expulsion of a fetus

16 Gestation Lengths Horse: 11 months Cow: 9 months Sow: 3 weeks, 3 months, 3 days Dog: 63 days Sheep & Goats: 5 months Rabbit: 1 month Cat: 2 months

17 Pregnancy Placenta: provides for exchange of nutrients, O2, and wastes Ruminants: –Cotyledons: “buttons” that attach placenta to fetus –Caruncles: “buttons” that attach placenta on maternal side. (Remember “uncle” is part of your family)

18 Parturition Neonate: newborn fetus Colostrum: first milk; contains antibodies Muconium: first feces Lactation: forming and secreting milk Dystocia: difficult birth –Malpresentation: awkward position of fetus during delivery, depends on species

19 THE END!!!!


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