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Female Reproductive System Jr/Sr Veterinary Science

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Presentation on theme: "Female Reproductive System Jr/Sr Veterinary Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Female Reproductive System Jr/Sr Veterinary Science
Animal Reproduction Female Reproductive System Jr/Sr Veterinary Science

2 To create and support new life
Function To create and support new life

3 Structures Ovary: Oviducts: Infundibulum:
Paired Primary Female Reproductive Organ Produce eggs (ova or oocytes) & hormones Oviducts: AKA “Fallopian Tubes” Carries egg from ovary to uterus Site of fertilization Infundibulum: Funnel-like structure which “catches” a released egg & brings it to the oviduct

4 Structures Uterus/Uterine Horns: Cervix: Vagina:
Thick, muscular organ where fertilized egg develops into a fetus before birth Cervix: Prevents foreign material from entering uterus Forms a mucus plug during pregnancy Vagina: Semen is deposited during copulation Part of birth canal & urinary system

5 Structures Urethra: Vulva: Mammary Glands
Brings urine from the bladder to the vagina Vulva: External female genitalia Contains clitoris, sensitive tissue stimulated during mating Mammary Glands Milk-producing glands in females Called “udder” or “teats”

6 Species Differences Sow: Convoluted uterine horns, corkscrew cervix
Cow & Ewe: Prominent uterine horns. Cervical Rings Mare: Smooth cervix, “ovulation fossa” “Folds” Bitch: Slender uterine horns Doe Rabbit: Two cervixes: Bicornate

7 Ovulation Female Gamete: egg, (ova or oocyte)
Follicle: site on ovary that contains an egg Primary Follicle: earliest stage Maturing Follicle: developing stage Graafian Follicle: dominant & about to ovulate Corpus Luteum: “scar,” forms after ovulation at old Graafian follicle site

8 Ovulation, con’t Oogenesis: Monotocous: Polytocous:
Development & production of eggs (ova) Monotocous: non-litter bearing species; 1 dominant follicle Polytocous: litter-bearing species; several follicles develop

9 Hormones GnRH: stimulates production of LH & FSH
FSH: stimulates follicle to develop & release of estrogen. Develops yolk and secretes estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen: brings on heat cycle, causes development of secondary sex characteristics, stimulates release of LH LH: causes ovulation (release of egg from follicle) & development of corpus luteum

10 Hormones, con’t Progesterone: secreted by the corpus luteum (CL); maintains pregnancy: Yellow body. Prevents FSH and LH production. Inhibits secretion of GnRH by blocking further ovarian activity. Prostaglandin: secreted by uterus if animal is not pregnant; causes regression of CL

11 Estrous Cycle Proestrus: follicle matures to release egg
Estrus: egg is released by ovary, female is sexually receptive Metestrus: period after ovulation, while CL is developing; will often bleed from the vulva (cows) Diestrus: corpus luteum becomes active Anestrus: not cycling

12 Variations in Estrous Cycles
Monoestrous: one estrus in a breeding season or year Polyestrous: are in estrus more than once in a breeding season or year Seasonal breeders: are in estrus only certain times of the year, by daylight ex: sheep: fall (decreasing daylight) horses: March – October (increasing daylight)

13 Signs of Estrus Cow: stands to be mounted, swollen vulva
Sow: stands to be mounted, grunting Ewe: Seeking ram, enlarged vulva Mare: “winking” of the vulva, frequent urination, raised tail, nervous behavior Bitch:change in behavior, bloody discharge, acceptance of male Cat: howling

14 Gestation Conception: formation of an embryo, resulting from fertilization Gestation: length of time from conception to birth Gravid: animal is confirmed pregnant Parturition: act of giving birth Delivery: expulsion of a fetus

15 Gestation Lengths Horse: 11 months Cow: 9 months
Sow: 3 weeks, 3 months, 3 days Dog: 63 days Sheep & Goats: 5 months Rabbit: 1 month Cat: 2 months

16 Pregnancy Placenta: provides for exchange of nutrients, O2, and wastes
Ruminants: Cotyledons: “buttons” that attach placenta to fetus Caruncles: “buttons” that attach placenta on maternal side. (Remember “uncle” is part of your family)

17 Parturition Neonate: newborn fetus
Colostrum: first milk; contains antibodies Muconium: first feces Lactation: forming and secreting milk Dystocia: difficult birth Malpresentation: awkward position of fetus during delivery, depends on species

18 THE END!!!!

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