Presentation on theme: "August 22, 2014 Gender as a Cross Cutting Issue Central to Good Governance Induction Training, RIAM November 2006 Dr Shirley Randell & Restituta Mukantagara."— Presentation transcript:
August 22, 2014 Gender as a Cross Cutting Issue Central to Good Governance Induction Training, RIAM November 2006 Dr Shirley Randell & Restituta Mukantagara
2 Gender as a cross cutting issue Rationale for strong emphasis on gender in Rwanda Poverty Reduction Economic Development Good Governance
3 What are the international, regional and local contexts that have led to gender being recognised as central to poverty reduction, economic development and good governance
4 International Context CEDAW – Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women Beijing Platform for Action (BPFA) Millennium Development Goals, particularly MDG3, Gender equality and women’s empowerment, but all – poverty, water, education, health etc
5 Regional Context NEPAD objectives – eradicating long term disparities and promoting equality and equity between men and women The Rights of Women in Africa is a Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’ Rights The Solemn Declaration of African State Leaders (2004) expresses support for the parity principle Rwanda soon to join the East African Community which also has gender priorities
6 National Context Constitution - Article 9 of the Constitution states that: “30 percent of all decision-making structures shall be reserved for women 2003 Government commitment to gender issues and mainstreaming Decentralisation policy –- favours representation of women at the various administrative levels MIGEPROF and National Gender policy
7 National Context Vision 2020 Gender is a key aspect of Pillar 3 in the Government of Rwanda’s Vision 2020 Inclusion of gender will lead to effective implementation of all other pillars
8 Economic Development Poverty Reduction Strategy Gender as a cross cutting issue is a key aspect of all planning for Rwanda’s EDPRS 2006-2008 planning, including the 12 sector working groups Gender is a critical component of HIV/AIDS which is also a major cross cutting issue in the EDPRS
9 Table 1 Status on International Indicators, Rwanda, 2005 HDI rank (167 countries) GDI rank (140 countries) GDI valueHDI rank minus GDI rank HDI value 1591220.44710.45 HDI Human Development Index GDI Gender Development Index
10 Table 2: Development Indicators in Rwanda by Sex Development Indicators Female Male Life expectancy at birth45.6 42.1 Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary levels48.6% 58% Adult literacy rate (age 15 and above)48.6 % 70.5% Estimated earned income (PPP US $) $US985 $US1,583
11 Table 2: Development Indicators in Rwanda by Sex FemaleMale Women living below poverty line65.3% Total rate of economic activity82.3% 93.5% Employment in the non-agricultural sector24% n/a Participation in tertiary education39% 61% Participation in Government at Ministerial level 35.7% 64.3% Participation in National Parliament48% 52%
12 Challenges to the policy of gender as a cross cutting issue Internationally and nationally the policy of mainstreaming gender in practice areas has seen gender issues neglected and slipping off the agenda. There has been a reduction in the efforts to empower women, the other side of the coin to gender equality There is very limited gender budgeting in planning and decision making processes There is very limited gender auditing to assess progress
13 Challenges to the policy of gender as a cross cutting issue There is a high demand from the national and district governments, civil society and women’s organisations in Rwanda for support in gender equality and women’s empowerment strategies and activities in addition to the gender mainstreaming/cross-cutting strategy.
14 Case Studies from SNV Experience Training of Advisers to all be gender sensitive and able to implement gender principles in all practice areas Preparing a manual for mainstreaming gender into Water, Sanitation and Health programs Advocacy at national level for the inclusion of gender in the EDPRS
15 Case Study 1 SNV Rwanda advisers unfamiliar with gender concepts and practice 10 day, 30 hour interactive in-house gender and development course delivered All practice areas prepare gender action plans Significant progress made in integrating gender in NRM – biogas, RALG – education, MAP – honey, PPT In-house gender committee established
20 Case Study 2: Training Manual for Mainstreaming Gender into WASH Programs COFORWA approached SNV for gender training of management and technicians PROTOS approached SNV for gender training for coordinator Field visit for focus groups Gender training manual prepared incorporating chapters from SNV manual and new chapters on gender and water Manual trialled with gender adviser - October Manual to be trialled in field - November
23 Case Study 3: advocacy at national level - EDPRS SNV approached MINECOFIN, UNIFEM, UNDP, DFID about engendering the EDPRS process Together we called for a gender workshop for all Ministries and stakeholders in the EDPRS We set up gender shadow Sector Working Groups to monitor the work of every SWG SNV staff were invited to participate in SWGs and Shadow SWGs - backward looking report on PRSP
24 Case Study 4: EDPRS (cont) Cross-cutting issues SWG developed checklists for each of the four cross cutting issues, including gender MIGEPROF, UNDP, UNIFEM/SNV national workshop on gender based policy analysis Gender representatives attended each of the sector log frame exercises The cross cutting issues SWG is now examining each log frame to ensure that gender is included appropriately
31 Gender Goal By 2020, Rwandan women and men, girls and boys will have achieved equity of - voice, - participation and - access in every area of economic growth and poverty reduction represented in national policy and law.
32 Purpose By 2012, gender equality can be demonstrated, measured and verified using gender disaggregated national data to show that the country is on track to achieving: Gender equality in halving the proportion of people living below the poverty line by 2015
33 Gender equality in reduced income disparity (Gini coefficient, shares of the poorest quintile in national consumption) Gender equality in increased GDP per capita US$ Gender equality within the increased average GDP growth rate (to 8%) Gender equality in progress towards the MDGs
34 Five major areas Gender-disaggregated data collection and reporting Reproductive health rights Access to business and services Law and policy on legal, social, economic opportunities and physical protection Educational achievement
36 1Progress towards achieving gender equity In Sectoral policies and their implementation, and in District plans and their implementation - demonstrated by every Sector/ District in their returns to the EDPRS Annual Progress Review (APR). Data and analysis to be presented in an annual composite national assessment of progress : > in the EDPRS APR, > in the Joint Budget Support Review > in the Minister of Finance’s presentation of the budget to Parliament.
37 Suggested Outputs NIS: Gender-disaggregated data contained in all national surveys and reports by the National Institute of Statistics Parliament/MIGEPROF: A new annual report: “Progress Towards Achieving Rwanda’s Commitment to its Women Citizens”.
38 Suggested Outputs (cont) MIGEPROF or Gender Observatoire: resourced to collect, analyse and present national gender equity progress All Sectors/ Districts: to establish gender-disaggregated data collections in their information systems for annual planning processes and annual reporting.
39 Suggested Outputs (cont) NEPAD: to utilise this data and reporting MINECOFIN: to ensure gender- disaggregated budget planning and execution data is available from all Sectors/ Districts.
40 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINECOFIN: Terms of Reference/ instructions for APR to include gender in each Sectoral chapter and a gender summary page. MINECOFIN: Gender-discussion to be scheduled for one of the annual Joint Budget Support Review meetings.
41 2Women enabled to exercise their reproductive health rights A reduction in the average number of children per woman from 6 to 5 by 2012 and to 4 by 2020. A significantly increased contraceptive prevalence rate A significant drop in the number of maternal deaths
42 2Women enabled to exercise their reproductive health rights (cont) A higher average age at which women have their first baby Increased levels of female participation in the labour market, including formal sector employment
44 Suggested Outputs MINISANTE: Increase the range of, and access to family planning methods - contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 10.3% to over 50% in 2020 MINEDUC: Maintain equal numbers of girls and boys in education – primary completion of 95% by 2012 100% by 2015 - enrolment in lower secondary 52% by 2012 62% by 2015 MIFOTRA: Reduce rate of youth unemployment/ underemployment by ½ within 5 years
45 Suggested Outputs (cont) MIFOTRA: Strategies for female participation in formal employment and the labour market agreed by 2008 MIFOTRA: Reduce rate of women’s unemployment/ underemployment by ½ within 5 years
46 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINISANTE: Reduce the rate of maternal mortality from 750/100,000 to 600 in 2010 and 200 in 2020 MINISANTE: Reduce the rate of infant mortality from 86/1000 to 80 in 2010 and 50 in 2020
47 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINISANTE : Safe delivery and child- birth for women - increase births taking place with trained attendance from 31% to over 50% in 2011 MINISANTE: National Information campaigns – designed to praise smaller families, explain contraception, deliver messages on safe delivery, provide messages on risks to infant mortality. MINALOC/MINEDUC: Increase in access to safe drinking water and to sanitation (including toilets in schools)
48 3 Range of business and financial services expanded and differential levels of gender access addressed Social Insurance extended in coverage (from 4% to 10% of population with full gender equity) by 2012. Social Safety Nets made more equitable for the most vulnerable 10% of the population by 2012.
49 Business and Financial Services (cont) Micro finance gap between men and women reduced by 75% by 2012 Revision of laws & policy to protect women’s ownership of land and other property Number of women’s start-up businesses increased by 50% by 2012
51 Suggested Outputs MINILOC: Formal Social Insurance coverage extended to over 10% of the population and equal participation by women and men by 2012. MINECOFIN/BNR: Provision of, and access to micro-finance extended to give equality of access to women and men - 50% reduction in gap.
52 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINECOFIN: Coverage of a Social Safety Net extended to equitable levels of support for the most vulnerable 10% of the population, with equal access to women Private Sector/ New products identified and brought to the market to address women’s concerns for financial services.
53 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINIJUST/MINITERE: Laws revised to grant women protected rights of ownership for land and other property, regardless of the status/ type of marriage. MINAGRI: Recognise the contribution of women farmers and increase their technological skills All Sectors: Strategies for sensitisation and awareness of differential access and the need for expansion of business and financial services identified and implemented
54 4Policy and law on women’s legal, social, economic opportunities By 2011, physical protection is completed, made effective and fully monitored on behalf of, and with the participation of, the mass of rural and urban women in Rwanda - in order to set a road map towards full and unequivocal gender equity by 2020
56 Suggested Outputs MINEDUC/MINIJUST: Literacy and legal literacy campaigns designed and launched by 2009 MIGEPROF: Public campaign on gender-based violence (GBV) designed and launched by 2008
57 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINIJUST/MINADEF: Training for Police and Security Forces on countering GBV designed and launched by 2008 Investigation into participation / trafficking into the sex industry researched and appropriate policy action taken by 2009
58 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINEDUC: Education investigates and designs measures to counter gender-based violence and gender-discrimination in schools and colleges by 2009 Parliament/MINILOC: MPs and Local Government Representatives are able to access, analyse and use national data to identify and implement gender-based policy initiatives by 2009
59 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINECOFIN: Design of a ‘gender equity roadmap’ based on bottom-up consultation processes agreed and costed by 2012 ready for the 3rd national PRSP All Sectors: support and help civil society organisations to increase their capacity to monitor and advocate for gender change
60 5Education Achievement Girls’ position in educational achievement is improved Young women achieve equity in completion of tertiary education and training Adult women increase their functional literacy/education rates
62 Suggested Outputs MINEDUC/MINELOC/MINITERE: Ensure that the physical environment (particularly school sanitation) in schools supports the continued attendance of girls and young women by 2010
63 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINEDUC/MINELOC/NIS: Implement quality controls - - data measurement - improvements to the school curriculum - improving school management (including parent teacher committees) and teacher role modelling; - planning for and implementing a comprehensive gender equity education policy made fully operational by 2010
65 Suggested Outputs (cont) MINEDUC/MINILOC: Functional adult literacy/education targets reviewed and made gender equitable - policy implemented and budget lines reviewed MINEDUC: Introduce specific equity measures to increase the participation of women in tertiary education and training
66 Gender Goal By 2020, Rwandan women and men, girls and boys will have achieved equity of - voice, - participation and - access to every area of economic growth and poverty reduction represented in national policy and law.