Presentation on theme: "Gender as a Cross Cutting Issue"— Presentation transcript:
1Gender as a Cross Cutting Issue Central to Good GovernanceInduction Training, RIAM November 2006Dr Shirley Randell & Restituta MukantagaraApril 5, 2017
2Gender as a cross cutting issue Rationale for strong emphasis on gender in RwandaPoverty ReductionEconomic DevelopmentGood Governance
3What are the international, regional and local contexts that have led to gender being recognised as central to poverty reduction, economic development and good governance
4International Context CEDAW – Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against WomenBeijing Platform for Action (BPFA)Millennium Development Goals, particularly MDG3, Gender equality and women’s empowerment, but all – poverty, water, education, health etc
5Regional ContextNEPAD objectives – eradicating long term disparities and promoting equality and equity between men and womenThe Rights of Women in Africa is a Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’ RightsThe Solemn Declaration of African State Leaders (2004) expresses support for the parity principleRwanda soon to join the East African Community which also has gender priorities
6National Context Constitution - Article 9 of the Constitution states that: “30 percent of all decision-making structures shall be reserved for women2003 Government commitment to gender issues and mainstreamingDecentralisation policy- favours representation of women at the various administrative levelsMIGEPROF and National Gender policy
7National Context Vision 2020 Gender is a key aspect of Pillar 3 in the Government of Rwanda’s Vision 2020Inclusion of gender will lead to effective implementation of all other pillars
8Economic Development Poverty Reduction Strategy Gender as a cross cutting issue is a key aspect of all planning for Rwanda’s EDPRS planning, including the 12 sector working groupsGender is a critical component of HIV/AIDS which is also a major cross cutting issue in the EDPRS
9Table 1 Status on International Indicators, Rwanda, 2005 HDI rank(167 countries)GDI rank(140 countries)GDI valueminus GDI rankHDI value1591220.44710.45HDI Human Development IndexGDI Gender Development Index
10Table 2: Development Indicators in Rwanda by Sex Development Indicators Female MaleLife expectancy at birthCombined gross enrolmentratio for primary, secondaryand tertiary levels 48.6% %Adult literacy rate(age 15 and above) % %Estimated earned income(PPP US $) $US $US1,583
11Table 2: Development Indicators in Rwanda by Sex Female MaleWomen living below poverty line 65.3%Total rate of economic activity 82.3% 93.5%Employment in thenon-agricultural sector 24% n/aParticipation in tertiary education 39% 61%Participation in Governmentat Ministerial level % 64.3%Participation in National Parliament 48% 52%
12Challenges to the policy of gender as a cross cutting issue Internationally and nationally the policy of mainstreaming gender in practice areas has seen gender issues neglected and slipping off the agenda.There has been a reduction in the efforts to empower women, the other side of the coin to gender equalityThere is very limited gender budgeting in planning and decision making processesThere is very limited gender auditing to assess progress
13Challenges to the policy of gender as a cross cutting issue There is a high demand from the national and district governments, civil society and women’s organisations in Rwanda for support in gender equality and women’s empowerment strategies and activities in addition to the gender mainstreaming/cross-cutting strategy.
14Case Studies from SNV Experience Training of Advisers to all be gender sensitive and able to implement gender principles in all practice areasPreparing a manual for mainstreaming gender into Water, Sanitation and Health programsAdvocacy at national level for the inclusion of gender in the EDPRS
15Case Study 1SNV Rwanda advisers unfamiliar with gender concepts and practice10 day, 30 hour interactive in-house gender and development course deliveredAll practice areas prepare gender action plansSignificant progress made in integrating gender in NRM – biogas, RALG – education, MAP – honey, PPTIn-house gender committee established
20Case Study 2: Training Manual for Mainstreaming Gender into WASH Programs COFORWA approached SNV for gender trainingof management and techniciansPROTOS approached SNV for gender training for coordinatorField visit for focus groupsGender training manual prepared incorporating chapters from SNV manual and new chapters on gender and waterManual trialled with gender adviser - OctoberManual to be trialled in field - November
23Case Study 3: advocacy at national level - EDPRS SNV approached MINECOFIN, UNIFEM, UNDP, DFID about engendering the EDPRS processTogether we called for a gender workshop for all Ministries and stakeholders in the EDPRSWe set up gender shadow Sector Working Groups to monitor the work of every SWGSNV staff were invited to participate in SWGs and Shadow SWGs- backward looking report on PRSP
24Case Study 4: EDPRS (cont) Cross-cutting issues SWG developed checklists for each of the four cross cutting issues, including genderMIGEPROF, UNDP, UNIFEM/SNV national workshop on gender based policy analysisGender representatives attended each of the sector log frame exercisesThe cross cutting issues SWG is now examining each log frame to ensure that gender is included appropriately
31Gender GoalBy 2020, Rwandan women and men, girls and boys will have achieved equity of- voice,- participation and- accessin every area of economic growth and poverty reduction represented in national policy and law.
32Purpose By 2012, gender equality can be demonstrated, measured and verified using gender disaggregated national data to show that the country is on track to achieving:Gender equality in halving the proportion of people living below the poverty line by 2015
33Gender equality in reduced income disparity (Gini coefficient, shares of the poorest quintile in national consumption)Gender equality in increased GDP per capita US$Gender equality within the increased average GDP growth rate (to 8%)Gender equality in progress towards the MDGs
34Five major areas Gender-disaggregated data collection and reporting Reproductive health rightsAccess to business and servicesLaw and policy on legal, social, economic opportunities and physical protectionEducational achievement
36Progress towards achieving gender equity In Sectoral policies and their implementation, and in District plans and their implementation- demonstrated by every Sector/ District in their returns to the EDPRS Annual Progress Review (APR).Data and analysis to be presented in an annual composite national assessment of progress : > in the EDPRS APR,> in the Joint Budget Support Review> in the Minister of Finance’s presentation of the budget to Parliament.
37Suggested OutputsNIS: Gender-disaggregated data contained in all national surveys and reports by the National Institute of StatisticsParliament/MIGEPROF: A new annual report: “Progress Towards Achieving Rwanda’s Commitment to its Women Citizens”.
38Suggested Outputs (cont) MIGEPROF or Gender Observatoire: resourced to collect, analyse and present national gender equity progressAll Sectors/ Districts: to establish gender-disaggregated data collections in their information systems for annual planning processes and annual reporting.
39Suggested Outputs (cont) NEPAD: to utilise this data and reportingMINECOFIN: to ensure gender- disaggregated budget planning and execution data is available from all Sectors/ Districts.
40Suggested Outputs (cont) MINECOFIN: Terms of Reference/ instructions for APR to include gender in each Sectoral chapter and a gender summary page.MINECOFIN: Gender-discussion to be scheduled for one of the annual Joint Budget Support Review meetings.
41Women enabled to exercise their reproductive health rights A reduction in the average number of children per woman from 6 to 5 by 2012 and to 4 byA significantly increased contraceptive prevalence rateA significant drop in the number of maternal deaths
42Women enabled to exercise their reproductive health rights (cont) A higher average age at which women have their first babyIncreased levels of female participation in the labour market, including formal sector employment
44Suggested OutputsMINISANTE: Increase the range of, and access to family planning methods- contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 10.3% to over 50% in 2020MINEDUC: Maintain equal numbers of girls and boys in education– primary completion of 95% by 2012100% by 2015- enrolment in lower secondary52% by 201262% by 2015MIFOTRA: Reduce rate of youth unemployment/ underemployment by ½ within 5 years
45Suggested Outputs (cont) MIFOTRA: Strategies for female participation in formal employment and the labour market agreed by 2008MIFOTRA: Reduce rate of women’s unemployment/ underemployment by ½ within 5 years
46Suggested Outputs (cont) MINISANTE: Reduce the rate of maternal mortality from 750/100,000 to 600 in 2010 and 200 in 2020MINISANTE: Reduce the rate of infant mortality from 86/1000 to 80 in 2010 and 50 in 2020
47Suggested Outputs (cont) MINISANTE : Safe delivery and child-birth for women - increase births taking place with trained attendance from 31% to over 50% in 2011MINISANTE: National Information campaigns – designed to praise smaller families, explain contraception, deliver messages on safe delivery, provide messages on risks to infant mortality.MINALOC/MINEDUC: Increase in access to safe drinking water and to sanitation (including toilets in schools)
483 Range of business and financial services expanded and differential levels of gender access addressedSocial Insurance extended in coverage (from 4% to 10% of population with full gender equity) by 2012.Social Safety Nets made more equitable for the most vulnerable 10% of the population by 2012.
49Business and Financial Services (cont) Micro finance gap between men and women reduced by 75% by 2012Revision of laws & policy to protect women’s ownership of land and other propertyNumber of women’s start-up businesses increased by 50% by 2012
51Suggested OutputsMINILOC: Formal Social Insurance coverage extended to over 10% of the population and equal participation by women and men by 2012.MINECOFIN/BNR: Provision of, and access to micro-finance extended to give equality of access to women and men - 50% reduction in gap.
52Suggested Outputs (cont) MINECOFIN: Coverage of a Social Safety Net extended to equitable levels of support for the most vulnerable 10% of the population, with equal access to womenPrivate Sector/ New products identified and brought to the market to address women’s concerns for financial services.
53Suggested Outputs (cont) MINIJUST/MINITERE: Laws revised to grant women protected rights of ownership for land and other property, regardless of the status/ type of marriage.MINAGRI: Recognise the contribution of women farmers and increase their technological skillsAll Sectors: Strategies for sensitisation and awareness of differential access and the need for expansion of business and financial services identified and implemented
54Policy and law on women’s legal, social, economic opportunities By 2011, physical protection is completed, made effective and fully monitored on behalf of, and with the participation of, the mass of rural and urban women in Rwanda- in order to set a road maptowards full and unequivocalgender equity by 2020
56Suggested OutputsMINEDUC/MINIJUST: Literacy and legal literacy campaigns designed and launched by 2009MIGEPROF: Public campaign on gender-based violence (GBV) designed and launched by 2008
57Suggested Outputs (cont) MINIJUST/MINADEF: Training for Police and Security Forces on countering GBV designed and launched by 2008Investigation into participation / trafficking into the sex industry researched and appropriate policy action taken by 2009
58Suggested Outputs (cont) MINEDUC: Education investigates and designs measures to counter gender-based violence and gender-discrimination in schools and colleges by 2009Parliament/MINILOC: MPs and Local Government Representatives are able to access, analyse and use national data to identify and implement gender-based policy initiatives by 2009
59Suggested Outputs (cont) MINECOFIN: Design of a ‘gender equity roadmap’ based on bottom-up consultation processes agreed and costed by ready for the 3rd national PRSPAll Sectors: support and help civil society organisations to increase their capacity to monitor and advocate for gender change
605 Education Achievement Girls’ position in educational achievement is improvedYoung women achieve equity in completion of tertiary education and trainingAdult women increase their functional literacy/education rates
62Suggested OutputsMINEDUC/MINELOC/MINITERE: Ensure that the physical environment (particularly school sanitation) in schools supports the continued attendance of girls and young women by 2010
63Suggested Outputs (cont) MINEDUC/MINELOC/NIS: Implement quality controls -- data measurement- improvements to the school curriculum- improving school management (including parent teacher committees) and teacher role modelling;- planning for and implementing a comprehensive gender equity education policy made fully operational by 2010
65Suggested Outputs (cont) MINEDUC/MINILOC: Functional adult literacy/education targets reviewed and made gender equitable - policy implemented and budget lines reviewedMINEDUC: Introduce specific equity measures to increase the participation of women in tertiary education and training
66Gender GoalBy 2020, Rwandan women and men, girls and boys will have achieved equity of- voice,- participation and- accessto every area of economic growth and poverty reduction represented in national policy and law.