3 Learning ObjectivesExplain why effective communication helps an organization gain a competitive advantage.Describe the communication process, and explain the role of perception in communication.Define information richness, and describe the information richness of communication media available to managers.
4 Learning ObjectivesDescribe the communication networks that exist in groups and teams.Explain how advances in technology have given managers new options for managing communications.Describe important communication skills that managers need as senders and receivers of messages.
5 Communication and Management The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding.
6 Communication and Management Importance of Good CommunicationIncreased efficiency in new technologies and skillsImproved quality of products and servicesIncreased responsiveness to customersMore innovation through communication
7 The Communication Process Phases of the Communication Process:Transmission phase in which information is shared by two or more people.Feedback phase in which a common understanding is assured.
9 Question?What part of the communication process has the sender translating the message into symbols or language?MessageEncodingDecodingFeedbackThe correct answer is “B” – encoding. See next slide.
10 The Communication Process Sender – person wishing to share information with some other personMessage – what information to communicateEncoding – sender translates the message into symbols or languageNoise – refers to anything that hampers any stage of the communication process
11 The Communication Process Receiver – person or group for which the message is intendedMedium – pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiverDecoding - critical point where the receiver interprets and tries to make sense of the message
12 The Communication Process Feedback phase is initiated by the receiverReceiver decides what message to send to the original senderFeedback eliminates misunderstandings, ensures that messages are correctly interpreted
13 Verbal & Nonverbal Communication The encoding of messages into words, either written or spokenNonverbalThe encoding of messages by means of facial expressions, body language, and styles of dress.
14 The Role of Perception in Communication process through which people select, organize, and interpret sensory input to give meaning and order to the world around them
15 The Role of Perception in Communication Biasessystematic tendencies to use information about others in ways that can result in inaccurate perceptions
16 The Role of Perception in Communication Stereotypesoften inaccurate beliefs about the characteristics of particular groups of peoplecan interfere with the encoding and decoding of messages
17 The Dangers of Ineffective Communication When managers and other members of an organization are ineffective communicators, organizational performance suffers and any competitive advantage the organization might have is likely to be lost
18 Information Richness and Communication Media Managers and their subordinates can become effective communicators by:Selecting an appropriate medium for each message—there is no one “best” medium.Considering information richnessA medium with high richness can carry much more information to aid understanding.
19 Question?What is the amount of information that a communication medium can carry?Channel capacityInformation richnessBandwidthMessage capacityThe correct answer is “B” – see next slide
20 Information RichnessThe amount of information that a communication medium can carryThe extent to which the medium enables the sender and receiver to reach a common understanding
21 Information Richness of Communication Media Figure 16.2
22 Communication Media Face-to-Face Has highest information richness. Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals.
23 Communication Media Face-to-Face Provides for instant feedback. Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers.Video conferences provide much of this richness and reduce travel costs and meeting times.
24 Communication Media Spoken Communication Electronically Transmitted Has the second highest information richness.Telephone conversations are information rich with tone of voice, sender’s emphasis, and quick feedback, but provide no visual nonverbal cues.
25 Communication Media Personally Addressed Written Communication Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of communication, but still is directed at a given person.Personal addressing helps ensure receiver actually reads the message—personal letters and are common forms.
26 Communication Media Personally Addressed Written Communication Does not provide instant feedback to the sender although sender may get feedback later.Excellent media for complex messages requesting follow-up actions by receiver.
27 Dos and Don’tsallows telecommuting employees to work from home and keep in contact.The use of is growing rapidly and etiquette is expected:Typing messages in all CAPITALS is seen as “screaming” at the receiver.Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’t ramble on.Pay attention to spelling and treat the message like a written letter.
28 Communication Media Impersonal Written Communication Has the lowest information richness.Good for messages to many receivers where little or feedback is expected (e.g., newsletters, reports)
29 Communication MediaMany managers do not have time to read all the electronic work-related information available to themProblem with information overload is the potential for important information to be ignored or overlookedCan result in lost productivity
30 Communication Networks The pathways along which information flows in groups and teams and throughout the organization.
31 Communication Networks Type of communication network depends on:The nature of the group’s tasksThe extent to which group members need to communicate with each other to achieve group goals.
33 Communication Networks in Groups and Teams Figure 16.3
34 Organization Communication Networks Organization ChartSummarizes the formal reporting channels in an organization.Communication in an organization flows through formal and informal pathwaysVertical communications flow up and down the corporate hierarchy.
35 Organization Communication Networks Organization ChartHorizontal communications flow between employees of the same level.Informal communications can span levels and departments—the grapevine is an informal network carrying unofficial information throughout the firm.
36 Formal and Informal Communication Networks in an Organization Figure 16.4
37 Technological Advances in Communication InternetGlobal system of computer networks that is easy to join and is used by employees to communicate inside and outside their companiesWorld Wide Web (WWW)“Business district” with multimedia capabilities
38 Technological Advances in Communication IntranetsA company-wide system of computer networks for information sharing by employees inside the firm.Advantages of intranetsLies in their versatility as a communication mediumCan be used for a number of different purposes by people who may have little expertise in computer software and programming
39 Technological Advances in Communication GroupwareComputer software that enables members of groups and teams to share information with each other and improve communication.
40 How to Be Successful Using Groupware Work is team-based and members are rewarded for group performanceGroupware has full support of top managementCulture of the organization stresses flexibilityGroupware is being used for a specific purposeEmployees receive adequate training
41 Groupware Employees are likely to resist using groupware when: people are working primarily on their ownpeople are rewarded for their own individual performancesPeople are reluctant to share information
42 Groupware Collaboration software groupware that aims to promote collaborative, highly interdependent interactions among members of a team and provide the team with an electronic meeting site for communication
43 Barriers to Effective Communication Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult to understandMessages sent over the an inappropriate mediumMessages with no provision for feedbackMessages that are received but ignoredMessages that are misunderstoodMessages delivered through automated systems that lack the human element
44 Communication Skills for Managers as Senders Send clear and complete messages.Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands.Select a medium appropriate for the message and, importantly, one that is monitored by the receiver.Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers.Include a feedback mechanism is in the message.Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.
45 Communication Skills for Managers as Senders Jargonspecialized language that members of an occupation, group, or organization develop to facilitate communication among themselvesshould never be used when communicating with people outside the occupation, group, or organization
46 Discussion Question?What is the most important communication skill for managers?Be a good listener: don’t interruptBe empatheticAsk questions to clarify your understandingUnderstand linguistic stylesThere is no one best answer. Students should be familiar with all of the important communication skills. See next slide.
47 Communication Skills For Managers as Receivers Pay attention to what is sent as a message.Be a good listener: don’t interrupt.Ask questions to clarify your understanding.Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels.Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently.Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication.
48 Movie Example: The Terminal Is there communication between Viktor and Frank?Why or why not?The TerminalViktor Navorski (Tom Hanks) has come to America to fulfill a wish of his father. While en route from Krakozhia, there is a coup in his country, leaving Viktor with no official diplomatic status. Viktor lives out his days in the airport terminal waiting for his situation to improve.In this scene, Frank Dixon (Stanley Tucci), the director of customs, is explaining the circumstances of the situation to Viktor.Is there communication between Viktor and Frank? Why or why not?What are some barriers to communication?How well was Frank using active listening?