Presentation on theme: "Richard L. Smailes, Ph.D. Building Chan Chan; The Construction Managers Perspective University of Florida."— Presentation transcript:
Richard L. Smailes, Ph.D. Building Chan Chan; The Construction Managers Perspective University of Florida
Bachelor of Building Construction, UF 1976 Bachelor of Building Construction, UF 1976 Master of Building Construction, UF 1977 Master of Building Construction, UF years construction industry experience 25 years construction industry experience Ph.D. Building Construction, UF 2000 Ph.D. Building Construction, UF 2000 Mike Mosely co-chair Practitioner turned academic
Building Chan Chan; The Construction Managers Perspective What is the labor investment? What is the labor investment? How many people? How many people? How long? How long?
Premis: The labor investment in ancient monumental architecture is an important factor in hypotheses concerning a society's size, organization, and complexity.
Premis: Due to the lack of practical analytical methods, complex architecture is often described subjectively offering little quantitative value, resulting in inferences that could be misleading or wrong. Massive amounts of labor, generations to build
Premis: The labor investment in ancient monumental architecture is an important factor in hypotheses concerning a society's size, organization, and complexity. Due to the lack of practical analytical methods, complex architecture is often described subjectively offering little quantitative value, resulting in inferences that could be misleading or wrong. The application of construction industry estimating and scheduling standards provides a consistent, accurate, and objective means to calculate the labor investment in complex structures.
1. Define the Scope of Work 2. Perform the Quantity Survey 3. Determine Productivity - Unit Rates 4. Calculate the Project Estimate 5. Develop a Work Plan - Schedule the Project Construction Methodology
Scope of Work Define exactly what is to be built Usually provided by plans and specifications. In the case of Chan Chan, the ruins are the as-builts.
Scope of Work - Work Breakdown Structure
Typical Storeroom Complex at Rivero
Storeroom Complex in Model
Scope of Work – Work Breakdown Structure
Quantity Survey Calculate the amount/quantity of each piece of work Usually measured from the plans and specifications. In the case of Chan Chan, perform field measurements.
Detailed Quantity Survey of a Storeroom
Quantity survey of a storeroom
Productivity - Unit Rates Calculate the rate of production for each type of work. Determined by construction techniques Usually considered proprietary information by construction companies. Published rates, experiments.
Sources of Productivity - Unit Rates Hand excavation: Field experiment* & contemporary rates Making adobes: Informants, contemporary rates Transporting adobes: Field & UN experiments* Erecting adobes: Practitioner, contemporary rates Tapia walls: Contemporary rates* Plastering: Contemporary rates Harvesting cana: UN studies* Fab & erect roof: Conceptual estimate * Rates based on data from underdeveloped countries.
Informant making adobes in the Moche Valley Construction Techniques
Large adobes Small adobes Intermediate adobes Construction Techniques Small adobes
Using story poles for horizontal alignment and speed leads for vertical alignment. Construction Techniques
Story pole Tapia Blocks Construction Techniques
Rammed earth construction Construction Techniques
Direct molding construction Construction Techniques
Recap of Productivity Rates
Project Estimate Correlate quantities to productivity rates to calculate the estimated labor hours.
2.1 million labor hours
1. Establish Logical Sequences of Work 2. Determine Crew Sizes & Durations 3. Calculate Project Schedule Work Plan - Scheduling
Factors Effecting Logical Sequences of Work Laws of Nature Constructability Issues / Curing Time Logistics / Room to Work Common Sense Owner Requirements Logical Sequencing of Work
Logical Sequencing of Work – Micro
This wall came first This wall abuts the first wall Logical Sequencing of Work – Macro
Scheduling – Crew Sizes and Durations
Results: 250 Workers could have built it in 5 ½ Years Calculate the Schedule - Macro
Effects on Archaeological Theories
The compounds of Chan Chan were the palaces of the kings. Each ruler built one such structure to house himself, be the seat of government, and serve as the center for the management of his wealth. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound
.. the palace passed to the king's corporation of secondary heirs after his death. His principal heir became the next king of Chimor and built a new palace. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound
If true, the construction time must be rapid and well within the lifetime of the new king. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound
Based upon the data from Rivero, the construction effort and time was estimated for the remaining compounds. The largest compound, Gran Chimu, is buildable in 9 years. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound
Rather than sequentially, the last four ciudadelas were built concurrently as pairs. That, rapid construction of the last four ciudadelas is compatible with the rise and formulation of quadripartition Dual Rule
Velarde Bandelier 8.3 years
Dual Rule Tschudi Rivero 8.5 years
Dual Rule Tschudi Rivero Velarde Bandelier 8.5 years
Dual Rule Velarde Bandelier 16.8 years Tschudi Rivero
Could easily come from the local population of 30,000 without any major shifts in the local economy. The decision to use imported workers from outlying areas would have been by choice not necessity. No need to feed or house workers from the provinces. Production could be year round. The Workforce
… theories regarding the Chimu concerning the control of mass labor and social complexity based solely on the construction of the monumental architecture of Chan Chan may need revisiting.
Ciudadela Rivero Detailed analysis, renderings, and animations are available on my website.