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Richard L. Smailes, Ph.D. Building Chan Chan; The Construction Managers Perspective University of Florida.

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Presentation on theme: "Richard L. Smailes, Ph.D. Building Chan Chan; The Construction Managers Perspective University of Florida."— Presentation transcript:

1 Richard L. Smailes, Ph.D. Building Chan Chan; The Construction Managers Perspective University of Florida

2 Bachelor of Building Construction, UF 1976 Bachelor of Building Construction, UF 1976 Master of Building Construction, UF 1977 Master of Building Construction, UF years construction industry experience 25 years construction industry experience Ph.D. Building Construction, UF 2000 Ph.D. Building Construction, UF 2000 Mike Mosely co-chair Practitioner turned academic

3 Building Chan Chan; The Construction Managers Perspective What is the labor investment? What is the labor investment? How many people? How many people? How long? How long?

4 Premis: The labor investment in ancient monumental architecture is an important factor in hypotheses concerning a society's size, organization, and complexity.

5 Premis: Due to the lack of practical analytical methods, complex architecture is often described subjectively offering little quantitative value, resulting in inferences that could be misleading or wrong. Massive amounts of labor, generations to build

6 Premis: The labor investment in ancient monumental architecture is an important factor in hypotheses concerning a society's size, organization, and complexity. Due to the lack of practical analytical methods, complex architecture is often described subjectively offering little quantitative value, resulting in inferences that could be misleading or wrong. The application of construction industry estimating and scheduling standards provides a consistent, accurate, and objective means to calculate the labor investment in complex structures.

7 Ciudadela Rivero

8

9 1. Define the Scope of Work 2. Perform the Quantity Survey 3. Determine Productivity - Unit Rates 4. Calculate the Project Estimate 5. Develop a Work Plan - Schedule the Project Construction Methodology

10 Scope of Work Define exactly what is to be built Usually provided by plans and specifications. In the case of Chan Chan, the ruins are the as-builts.

11 Scope of Work - Work Breakdown Structure

12 Typical Storeroom Complex at Rivero

13 Storeroom Complex in Model

14 Individual Storeroom

15 Scope of Work – Work Breakdown Structure

16 Quantity Survey Calculate the amount/quantity of each piece of work Usually measured from the plans and specifications. In the case of Chan Chan, perform field measurements.

17 Detailed Quantity Survey of a Storeroom

18 Quantity survey of a storeroom

19 Quantity Survey

20 Productivity - Unit Rates Calculate the rate of production for each type of work. Determined by construction techniques Usually considered proprietary information by construction companies. Published rates, experiments.

21 Sources of Productivity - Unit Rates Hand excavation: Field experiment* & contemporary rates Making adobes: Informants, contemporary rates Transporting adobes: Field & UN experiments* Erecting adobes: Practitioner, contemporary rates Tapia walls: Contemporary rates* Plastering: Contemporary rates Harvesting cana: UN studies* Fab & erect roof: Conceptual estimate * Rates based on data from underdeveloped countries.

22 Informant making adobes in the Moche Valley Construction Techniques

23 Large adobes Small adobes Intermediate adobes Construction Techniques Small adobes

24 Using story poles for horizontal alignment and speed leads for vertical alignment. Construction Techniques

25 Story pole Tapia Blocks Construction Techniques

26 Rammed earth construction Construction Techniques

27 Direct molding construction Construction Techniques

28 Productivity Rates

29 Recap of Productivity Rates

30 Project Estimate Correlate quantities to productivity rates to calculate the estimated labor hours.

31 Project Estimate

32 2.1 million labor hours

33 1. Establish Logical Sequences of Work 2. Determine Crew Sizes & Durations 3. Calculate Project Schedule Work Plan - Scheduling

34 Factors Effecting Logical Sequences of Work Laws of Nature Constructability Issues / Curing Time Logistics / Room to Work Common Sense Owner Requirements Logical Sequencing of Work

35 Logical Sequencing of Work – Micro

36 This wall came first This wall abuts the first wall Logical Sequencing of Work – Macro

37

38 Scheduling – Crew Sizes and Durations

39 Results: 250 Workers could have built it in 5 ½ Years Calculate the Schedule - Macro

40 Effects on Archaeological Theories

41 The compounds of Chan Chan were the palaces of the kings. Each ruler built one such structure to house himself, be the seat of government, and serve as the center for the management of his wealth. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound

42 .. the palace passed to the king's corporation of secondary heirs after his death. His principal heir became the next king of Chimor and built a new palace. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound

43 If true, the construction time must be rapid and well within the lifetime of the new king. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound

44 Based upon the data from Rivero, the construction effort and time was estimated for the remaining compounds. The largest compound, Gran Chimu, is buildable in 9 years. Split Inheritance aka 1 King 1 Compound

45 Rather than sequentially, the last four ciudadelas were built concurrently as pairs. That, rapid construction of the last four ciudadelas is compatible with the rise and formulation of quadripartition Dual Rule

46 Velarde Bandelier 8.3 years

47 Dual Rule Tschudi Rivero 8.5 years

48 Dual Rule Tschudi Rivero Velarde Bandelier 8.5 years

49 Dual Rule Velarde Bandelier 16.8 years Tschudi Rivero

50 Could easily come from the local population of 30,000 without any major shifts in the local economy. The decision to use imported workers from outlying areas would have been by choice not necessity. No need to feed or house workers from the provinces. Production could be year round. The Workforce

51 … theories regarding the Chimu concerning the control of mass labor and social complexity based solely on the construction of the monumental architecture of Chan Chan may need revisiting.

52 Ciudadela Rivero Detailed analysis, renderings, and animations are available on my website.


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