3Photos have impact.In an average size yearbook, the “moments” depicted total fewer than six minutes in the life of a schoolThis is calculated by assuming each photo is taken at 1/125 of a second, each spread contains seven action photos and that the book has 200 pages.
4Thinking photographically. Making intelligent assignmentsTaking story-telling photosSelecting the best for the bookHaving each staff member capable of taking a good photo
5Every photo needs a subject. Provide a point in the photo for the viewer to seeGet closeDon’t depend on cropping — selecting a portion of a photo — or enlarging — making the photo bigger
6Every photo needs a subject. In this example, because the photographer did not think about a subject, the photo is simply a mass of people. This photo is not worth the precious space it would take on a yearbook page.
7Every photo needs a subject. Even if a photograph is a close-up of faces, it doesn’t necessarily mean there is a subjectIn this photograph, notice how no two people are looking at the same thing. There’s no focal point within the group.
8Taking story-telling photographs. Learn to wait for a photo to happenAction photos are story-telling photosPeople take no notice of the photographer and are not directed by the photographer, giving a natural and real picture of what is going onPosed pictures look and feel like the people in the photo were instructed what to do or are acting a certain way for the camera
9Taking story-telling photographs. Photographers need to stay in the setting long enough to understand what is going on and to allow people to get used to themThe experience will equip photographers to write preliminary captions for the photos — a must for a good yearbook
10Find a focus.Be sure the photographer understands what the person designing the particular spread wantsThe photographer should be included in the discussion about the spreadThe spread designer should relay information regarding any specific requirementPhotographers should take lots of pictures and be creativeIn this day of digital photography, there’s no such thing as taking too many photosA photographer must think photographically and must take a variety of photos
11Find a focus.For any assignment, the assigning editor and the photographer should discuss the angle for the story and any secondary coverage — coverage in addition to the main storyExamples of secondary coverage include a profile on a person, question and answer sessions or thumbs up/thumbs down infographicsPhotographers should take photos both horizontally and verticallyThe photography staff has to work on capturing a diversity of people and activities. It also has to work on telling the stories of the year
12Take four kinds of photos. Photographers need to think through the situation so they take photos that establish the circumstances and what is happening all the way to the detail shotIf a photographer strives to capture establishing shots, medium shots and close-ups of all assignments, it will be easy to put together a yearbook spread or photo essay
13Establishing shot.An establishing shot sets the subject in context to the place, the situation and what is going onIt is essential that an establishing shot has a subject — a focal point for the reader
14Establishing shot. Focal points can be created in many ways Have someone or a group in the foreground that becomes the focus while the background provides supplementary informationThe reader first sees the subject and then takes in the rest of the photo
15Establishing shot.In this photo, the reader focuses first on the drill team member in front and then sees the rest of the girls in the stands
16Establishing shot.Another way to create a focal point is to provide a “frame” to help focus the viewer on the subject
17Establishing shot.In this example, the window frame focuses the viewer on the crowd. Without the frame, the photo would be dull.
18Establishing shot.A focal point can also be created by using selective focus, a technique by which the subject is in sharp focus while other portions of the photograph are in soft focus.
19Group interaction shot. A group interaction shot provides more detail and a closer look at the subjectNot much background is shownThe photographer gets close to the group and portrays interaction among individuals
20Group interaction shot. In this photo, the photographer shows children working together on a projectThe overhead angle increases the interest
21Close-up shot.A close-up shows one to three people interacting with one another or with something in their environmentIn the case of a single student, the individual could be writing a paper, painting a house or engaging in some other activity
22Close-up shot.In this close-up, an art teacher is explaining an assignmentNotice the wonderful lighting, how your eyes are directed to where he is looking and pointingThe photo also establishes where they are
23Close-up shot.In this example a powder puff football game shows an action photo with two girls competing against one anotherIt shows the actionIt doesn’t cut off any necessary body partsThe photo gives them room to move
24Close-up shot. A teacher reads to a student in this close-up shot It allows the viewer to see the teacher and student share a moment togetherIt shows the book they’re reading, the classroom location, albeit with a blurred focus
25Detail or parts of the whole photo. A detail or parts of the whole photo is an extreme close-upThey can be an effective and interesting contrast when placed with the other three kinds of photos — establishing shots, group interaction shots and close-up shots
26Detail or parts of the whole photo. The caption for this close-up of hands might draw attention to the jewelryThe photo provides drama because of the angle and the tight crop
27Detail or parts of the whole photo. Parts of the whole photos are extreme close-upsA wide-angle lens can provide emphasis
28Detail or parts of the whole photo. While the viewer maynot recognize the boydoing the experiment,the viewer identifies theimage and the captionwill fully explain what theview doesn’t know
29Rules of composition.There are rules of composition, and integrating multiple rules can result in a quality story-telling photograph
30Rules of composition. Fill the frame Photographers should live by this rule!Get close to the subject and eliminate dead spaceShow enough space to allow the subject to “move” or to“look purposefully” in a logical direction
31Rules of composition. The flags frame the young man hanging them The girl in the foreground lets the viewer know he is part of a groupIt is a tightly cropped photo
32Rules of composition. Follow the rule of thirds Think in terms of placing a tic-tac-toe grid on top of a photoThe subject should be in the intersection rather than in the dead centerThis is important for designers to understand when they place and crop photos
33Rules of composition.In this photo, the adult and the two children are in the left portion of the grid while the jar with the bug is near the right intersection
34Rules of composition. Vary the angle The way we see the world is not the way we want to show itEven something ordinary can be unique simply by photographing it from a different angleLiken photography angles to the face of a clockDon’t take photos from 6 o’clock if the subject is at noon unless it’s a traditional group photoOther photos are better taken from angles equivalent to 3-4 and 8-9 on a clock
35Rules of composition. Vary the angle Be careful when using an overhead angle to be aware of facesIt’s easy to get mostly tops of heads
36Rules of composition.This photo is taken from overhead with the photographer standing on the table
37Rules of composition. Vary the angle This fun photo, taken from almost directly below the graduates, shows a typical scene during graduationTheir arms act as frames for their faces and the slight blur of their hands provides a feeling of motion
38Combining the rules of composition. Good photographs are crafted when the rules of composition are used together
39Combining the rules of composition. Look at this photo and note the rules of composition that make it interesting
40Rules of composition. Use leading lines Leading lines are visible or perceived lines that draw the viewer to a specific place in a photo, usually the subjectThe key is getting close enough to the subject
41Rules of composition.In this photo, the photographer placed the camera on the gym floor and used the line of the floor to guide the reader to the girl doing her work there
42Rules of composition. Frame the subject carefully Think of a picture frame and how it frames the photo you place in itIn photography, the frame does not need to be complete
43Rules of composition.In this photo, the boy in the foreground provides a C-shaped frame for the subject in the background
44Rules of composition. Capture three-dimensional quality. While a photograph is flat, it doesn’t have to have a flat appearanceIf a photographer thinks about having a foreground, middle ground and background, pictures can become three-dimensionalAvoid taking photos directly from the 6 o’clock position to the noon positionTo achieve a three-dimensional effect, adjust the camera’s f-stop or aperture to a low number (and correspondingly higher shutter speed) to bring the subject into focus and the rest of the photo increasingly out of focus
45Rules of composition. Capture three-dimensional quality. In this photo, the row of musicians provides depth to the picture but the low f-stop allows only one portion of the photo in tight focusThe viewer clearly sees the subject before looking at the rest of the photo
46Combining the rules of composition. Here’s another example of how the rules of composition complement one another
47Rules of composition. Repeat designs or objects Capturing a photo down a line of people repeating the same action creates interestA photo of a group of students performing an action simultaneously would have interest
48Rules of composition.In this photo, the hands are obviously the focal pointThe repetition and the tight focus on the one hand makes the photo dynamic
49Rules of composition. Consider diagonal lines Diagonal lines are more interesting visually than straight onesThe same is true of “s” curves or any non-straight line
50Rules of composition.In this photo, a diagonal is created by the teacher looking down at the student
51Rules of composition. Contrast — two types The first type uses the concept of repetition, but one person is doing something different than the rest of the group
52Rules of composition.In this photo, the runners are all going for the finish line but only the one in front is reacting to the fact he is winning with his expression and body
53Rules of composition. Contrast — two types The second kind of contrast is lighting.A lighted image against a dark background, or a dark image silhouetted against a light background both have interest
54Rules of composition.This example is almost a silhouette with the strong lighting behind the two students
55In addition to the rules of composition, there are several other guidelines for good photography. Avoid mergers. Mergers occur when backgrounds and subjects compete for the focal point.
56In addition to the rules of composition, there are several other guidelines for good photography. 2. Think vertical. Approximately 75 percent of the photographs taken in yearbooks should be taken vertically. Faces are vertical shapes as are people’s bodies.
57In addition to the rules of composition, there are several other guidelines for good photography. 3. Select a point of view. This guideline uses the subjective point of view. The photographer might stand behind a player or students, looking at their teammates or teacher.
58In addition to the rules of composition, there are several other guidelines for good photography. 4. Look for texture. Light and shadows often create interesting patterns.
59In addition to the rules of composition, there are several other guidelines for good photography. 5. Remember, focus is not a special effect. Good focus is essential to draw a viewer to the subject. The subject should always be in focus.
60Student Activity1.1 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
61Student Activity1.2 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
62Student Activity1.3 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
63Student Activity1.4 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
64Student Activity1.5 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
65Student Activity1.6 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
66Student Activity1.7 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
67Student Activity1.8 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
68Student Activity1.9 Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
69Student Activity1.1a Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
70Student Activity1.2a Evaluate this photo. Describe the rules of composition and why the photo is effective as an action photo.
71Student Activity2.1 Evaluate this photo. Determine what makes it feel posed. What positive things could you say to a photographer even as you ask for a retake?
72Student Activity2.2 Evaluate this photo. Determine what makes it feel posed. What positive things could you say to a photographer even as you ask for a retake?
73Student Activity2.3 Evaluate this photo. Determine what makes it feel posed. What positive things could you say to a photographer even as you ask for a retake?
74Student Activity3. Evaluate these two pictures and tell which one works as an action photo and why the other doesn’t.3.13.2
75Student ActivityCollect a dozen lead photos from the daily newspaper. Display them prominently in the classroom. Have the staff evaluate the photos for story-telling ability and examine how the photos display the rules of composition. Find assignments on the yearbook ladder that could be taken using the techniques the newspaper photographers have used.
76Student Activity5. Ask the students to bring in story-telling photos they find visually interesting and that use a variety of photo techniques. Create a wall for these, and use them as a reference when discussing a photo assignment with the photographers.
77Student ActivityCreate groups of three or four staff members with a photographer in each group. Divide the ladder up among the groups. Have each group brainstorm for a variety of photos that could be taken for each assignment. Suggestions should include all four types of photos (establishing, group interaction, close-up and details or parts of the whole).