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The role of the additional language teacher in the PYP community Global Language Convention, Singapore Fiona Davis, Diane Fisk.

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Presentation on theme: "The role of the additional language teacher in the PYP community Global Language Convention, Singapore Fiona Davis, Diane Fisk."— Presentation transcript:

1 The role of the additional language teacher in the PYP community Global Language Convention, Singapore Fiona Davis, Diane Fisk

2 Towards a common understanding
What is an ‘additional-language teacher’ in the context of the PYP? What are the roles and responsibilities of these teachers and of all members of the PYP community? Implications In what ways do we expect our teachers to rise to the challenges of the PYP? Firstly we need to define clearly what we mean by additional- language and a-l teachers. We need to think about why there is an issue at all with including these teachers as part of the community and address what their roles and resp. are as well as considering the roles and resp. of all members of the community. It is a reciprocal process – not only must the school be supporting the teachers, but the teachers themselves must be showing some initiative and willingness to become part of the PYP. Secondly, there will be important implications to be drawn from this. There may great challenges for a-l teachers, and how can we expect them to face these challenges? Should we be expecting them to do so at all? Finally, we need to put mechanisms in place for supporting these teachers, and we hope that your suggestions and contributions will help us here. If you're looking at all this and thinking 'We do all this already', please don't leave – we value your input and examples of good practice tremendously. The next step How can PYP schools support additional-language teachers to become an integral part of the community? (c) IBO 2006

3 Any languages which are not languages of instruction in a school.
What does the PYP mean by ‘additional language’? Any languages which are not languages of instruction in a school. So what is the PYP definition of additional language? Of course, the designation of ‘additional language’ for many is synonymous with EAL, ‘English as an additional language’(or possibly FAL or SAL or CAL) generally a support system set up within a school for children for whom the language of instruction is not their native language. In different regions this is known as ‘second language’ or ‘foreign language’ teaching and support. But this is not the definition we in the PYP use. When we refer to the additional language, we are meaning…. (box on slide) Therefore, the additional language teachers are those teachers who are teaching the school’s additional language. The PYP distinction here is really between a child’s additional language and a school’s additional lang. The language support mechanisms in place in PYP schools are so intricate and varied world- wide, that it is not something we can address in a short presentation. This definition, which appears in all PYP documentation, relates directly to the IBO Standards and Practices’ explanation… (c) IBO 2006

4 IBO Standards and Practices :
B1.23 The school offers a language, in addition to the language of instruction, to students from the age of seven. 1) (organisation standard) In schools offering 2 languages of instruction, there often won’t be an ‘additional language’ at al.l In some international schools, a bilingual system is in operation, and those schools do not, of course, have to have a third additional lang, though some choose to do so. But in terms of this requirement, which all PYP schools, without exception, adhere to, the interpretation is very different not just from region to region but from school to school. Some schools have a specialist language teacher who comes in two afternoons a week; this teacher may be shared across programmes or even across schools; some schools allocate a daily portion of time (half an hour each morning or ten minutes after lunch) for the additional language. But just how much of an issue is this in our schools? The growth of the PYP in the world means a tremendous number of additional lang teachers are being integrated into a programme which makes unique demands on them. (c) IBO 2006

5 68 67 Number of schools 39 78 Years (as of February 2006)
The PYP grows and continues to grow. As more and more schools join the PYP, so the pressure increases on the IBO to inform schools on how to deal with the changes any school must face to implement the programme. Language issues are dominant in many schools, and many more additional language teachers are out there needing help. Years (c) IBO 2006

6 How many additional language teachers are there?
IBAP 168 authorized and candidate schools: 10 dual language (offering 2 or more languages of instruction) But how much of an issue is this in our schools? Are we not seeing more and more international schools operating a bilingual system? Well, here are the facts just in this region. Out of 168 authorized and candidate schools, 158 have additional language teaching (as opposed to being a bilingual or trilingual system). The argument about whether any school teaching two languages is effectively bilingual is one for another day – when schools were asked, they identified themselves in this way – as schools with one language of instruction offering an additional language. In fact the only region which really shows the balance going the other way is Latin America, whose schools largely call themselves 'bilingual'. In the States, President Bush’s national strategic language initiative means that children are learning or about to learn languages such as Arabic (Michigan), Putonghua (Portland already have 700,000 invested in this), Farsi, Hindi and so on – so additional language teaching is a big issue there. 158 additional language (c) IBO 2006

7 IBO Standards and Practices
A1.4 The beliefs and values that drive the programme are shared by all sections of the school community (including students, teachers, administrators etc) However, if we go back to the standards for a moment, we will find a practice that states….. This is IBO directly addressing the issue of single-subject teachers in the PYP, and throughout the continuum. This practice, from the ‘philosophy’ section of the standards, shows that we are all part of the IBO community of learners, and there should be no teacher, administrator or student who is outside the reach of the PYP philosophy and framework. We need to ask ourselves much more carefully if our agreed philosophy is actually matched by our practices. (c) IBO 2006

8 What are our beliefs and values about additional-language teachers?
All additional-language teachers are PYP teachers So what do we believe about our additional-language teachers. One of the IBO practices under curriculum standards says that 'all PYP teachers are language teachers', But it may be that we should be turning this statement on its head… …Is it not just as valuable to say that all language teachers are PYP teachers? This applies not only to the additional language teacher, but obviously to all single-subject or specialist teachers of PE, Music, Visual Art or Drama. In recent studies of PYP schools world-wide, and in discussions at curriculum development meetings, this is one of the key issues that has arisen over and over again; the separateness of single-subject teachers in the PYP community. That’s not to say that some schools are not succeeding in involving these teachers whole- heartedly in collaborative planning of units and in decisions relating to the central ideas,(and Diane will be telling us about some good practice in this area in her school) but it is not easy, when a teacher may be teaching across the school and sometimes across the different programmes as well. (c) IBO 2006

9 additional-language teacher
The role of the additional-language teacher “How does the school ensure that the additional- language teachers view themselves as PYP teachers and are considered part of the PYP community?” PYP Guidelines for developing a school language policy (IBO 2006 –Online Curriculum Centre) The most recent addition to the on-line resources of the PYP is the document entitled ‘guidelines for developing a school language policy’, and in this document we are starting to address the issue of what the role of the a-l t is in the PYP – we ask the question of the school, and the PYP coordinator in particular, “How does etc” This places a heavy responsibility on the administrators and coordinators in schools, but the responsibility has to be two-way. Additional language teachers also have a responsibility to consider practical ways of allowing this to happen. (c) IBO 2006

10 What are the implications for additional-language teachers?
that they should adhere to PYP philosophy ? that they should include the five essential elements in their teaching whenever possible ? that they should teach through inquiry whenever possible ? These are big implications for many additional language teachers. Issues of time, cross-programme commitments and national curriculum requirements or standards cannot be dismissed out of hand. We need to make it easier for teachers to become part of the PYP community. Additional language teachers…may feel a commitment to a prescriptive language syllabus…may view themselves as specialist language teachers rather than PYP teachers.. …may teach in more than one programme/section within a school… …may not have the time to plan collaboratively with other teachers in the school After looking at these points, handout the increase/decrease table to discuss how teachers are doing on this. Emphasise that it does not say that we need to throw out everything, just to redress the balance in favour of a wide variety of teaching methods. Ask if any of these seem uncomfortable in the light of teaching an additional language rather than a language which is the language of instruction. that they should plan collaboratively whenever possible ? (c) IBO 2006

11 State-sponsored teachers to teach Chinese overseas
China Daily State-sponsored teachers to teach Chinese overseas Minimum requirements include: a university degree; two years of teaching experience; Putonghua (Mandarin) level 2A or above; aged under 55; and a good command of the target country's language. Applicants will need to pass three exams organized by the office: a foreign language test; a general test (such as expression, psychology, speech, personality and appearance); a professional skills test (applicants will be required to fulfil a teaching task). More than 6,000 qualified applicants have enrolled in the office's reserve force of teachers. (c) IBO 2006

12 What does inquiry look like in our classrooms?
This slide is just a little provocation! This is a genuine schedule from a PYP school, but I won't say which one! Does inquiry look like this in our school? Is this the reality? Do we see it as something we do for an hour a day? I've even seen a similar schedule with 'IB time' instead of 'inquiry'!!! (c) IBO 2006

13 Can we teach an additional language through inquiry?
Language is the main medium of inquiry Literature is a vehicle for inquiry We are not here to talk solely about language practices, but those practices within the PYP. Inquiry is meant to be at the heart of everything we do. (Discuss statements on slide). 1) Lindfors talks about acts of inquiry, in which a speaker attempts to go beyond his or her present understanding. The speaking should be natural and student-initiated; like a window into children’s thinking – what they are making sense of and how they use others to help them understand. purpose(ie we must hear the presence of a purpose), expression of this purpose (often a wondering, not a question), of participants engaged in collaborative activity through dialogue; context – the weaving together of time, place, participants with meanings, expressions and purposes. Information-seeking – facts, explanations, clarifications Wondering – speculation, conjectures, exploring ideas, reflection 2) In an inquiry-driven classroom, children need to be allowed to address each other directly, and engage in inquiry around literary texts. Groups with different abilities in the language are put together so that they learn from each other, possibly around a carefully-chosen text – not waiting to be called on by the teacher. There are cognitive and social benefits in a classroom that fosters children’s voices and peer interactions (Cazden 2001, Vygotsky 1987) 3) Something we all know – but, by this token, a sound knowledge base must be had in a language in order to learn through language in all the disciplines. Even in a dual language environment, this is a challenge unless your students are already bilingual, but for the additional language teacher, it requires considerable thought. Academic language and concepts transfer in second language because there is a common underlying proficiency (Cummins 2000) Language is, by nature, transdisciplinary (c) IBO 2006

14 What do inquirers look like?
Exploring, wondering and questioning Making connections between previous and current learning Deepening understanding through the application of a concept Inquiry, says the PYP, “interpreted in the broadest sense, is the process initiated by the learner of the teacher that moves the learner from their current level of understanding to a new and deeper level of understanding.” This can mean, among other things... Teacher modelling? Students' inquiries should be genuine and honest – have real significance. Insightful inquiries stem from existing knowledge... The question must be, how do we plan for this kind of learning? Researching and seeking information (c) IBO 2006

15 IBO Standards and Practices relating to planning:
C2.2 Planning at the school takes place collaboratively. C2.10 Planning at the school makes effective use of the PYP planning process across the curriculum and by all teachers. To return once more to the IBO standards and practices... What is the solution to the problem for our additional language teachers? It is not enough to tell them they have to change their whole way of thinking and planning, if we are not offering any support mechanism for them to do this. The IBO standards and practices not only say C2.2 but they also say that the planning process should be used effectively by all teachers. In the light of this statement, no-one can say that they are outside this practice by default. (c) IBO 2006

16 Additional-language teachers in the PYP programme of inquiry:
Integrating or supporting a unit within the programme of inquiry Preparing for or following on from a unit within the programme of inquiry Skills-based teaching: in any rote-learning, the same philosophy and pedagogy must underpin planning and teaching of the subject. In the new version of Making the PYP happen, we address the needs of single-subject teachers within the PYP, and try to offer some suggestions for how they can plan for inquiry within and around the programme of inquiry. I'd like you to feel free to comment, give examples from your school etc. Independent inquiry: structure teaching and learning through the use of the learner profile, the transdisciplinary themes and central ideas. (c) IBO 2006

17 The PYP planner What is the PYP’s main tool for documenting:
teaching through inquiry? teaching through central ideas? collaborative planning? reflection? So how do we document our planning? What is our main tool for supporting us in the following areas?... The PYP planner (c) IBO 2006

18 Victoria Shanghai Academy, Hong Kong
“There is an emphasis on teamwork. Chinese and English teachers plan together to ensure the integration of subject areas and a balanced education for students.” (From Victoria Educational Organisation website) We are lucky enough to have with us Diane Fisk, who is the Deputy Principal and PYP co-ordinator at Victoria Shanghai Academy in Hong Kong. Victoria Shanghai teach in Putonghua and English, and Diane will tell us a little about the collaborative planning process at her school, and how the teachers manage the teaching of the languages in an inquiry-led programme …etc (Diane to talk through her PE teacher’s planning for inquiry – central ideas, concepts etc, and other methods employed at school) (c) IBO 2006

19 How can additional language teachers use the planner?
An inquiry into:  Central idea: Transdisciplinary theme: Summative Assessment Task(s) What are the possible ways of assessing students’ understanding of the central idea? What evidence will we look for, including student-initiated actions that may take place?  1. What is our purpose? We use different language to talk about habitual actions or events in the past. Where we are in space and time Here is an example of how an additional language teacher could use the PYP planner to help plan additional language teaching. At the end of the four weeks, students will be asked to write about key events in their own lives, and things that they used to do when they were younger, but no longer do. They will explain why they no longer do these things. The teacher will compare the language written to oral language used to discuss these issues at the start of the inquiry (recorded on tape). (c) IBO 2006

20 Fiona Davis Diane Fisk

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