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Brain & Behavior Psych 545 Dr David A Kaiser Office: Bldg 6 – A116 x6773

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Presentation on theme: "Brain & Behavior Psych 545 Dr David A Kaiser Office: Bldg 6 – A116 x6773"— Presentation transcript:

1 Brain & Behavior Psych 545 Dr David A Kaiser Office: Bldg 6 – A116 x6773

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3 Largest Brain on planet, 9.2 kg

4 Belongs to Sperm Whale

5 Absolute Brain Weight – Does it reflect intelligence? Species Adult Brain Weight (grams) Chimpanzee450 Human1,350 Bottlenosed dolphin 1,600 African elephant 6,075 Fin whale 7,200 Sperm Whale 9,200

6 Relative Brain Weight Species Brain to Body Weight Human 2.1 % Bottlenosed dolphin 1.2 % Chimpanzee.7 %.7 % African elephant.5 %.5 % Killer whale.1 %.1 % Cow.08 %.08 % Sperm Whale.02 %.02 %

7 Encephalization Increase in brain size during evolution of SPECIES, with no concomitant increase in body size Increase in brain size during evolution of SPECIES, with no concomitant increase in body size Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size - Aristotle Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size - Aristotle

8 Encephalization

9 Encephalization Quotient (EQ) Anatomical estimate of species intelligence (non- behavioral) Anatomical estimate of species intelligence (non- behavioral) EQ = ratio of brain weight of animal to brain weight of typical animal of same body weight (Jerison, 1973) EQ = ratio of brain weight of animal to brain weight of typical animal of same body weight (Jerison, 1973) EQ represents index of residual value of brain mass EQ represents index of residual value of brain mass Total Brain Mass = Brain for body size Total Brain Mass = Brain for body size + Residual brain for higher functions + Residual brain for higher functions

10 Encephalization Quotient (EQ) ????????9.0 Human7.4 Dolphin5.6 Killer whale2.9 Chimpanzee2.5 Rhesus Monkey2.1 Elephant1.9 Whale1.8 Dog1.2 Cat1.0 Horse0.9 Sheep0.8 Mouse0.5 Rabbit0.4 Human neocortex is 3.2x larger in volume than nonhuman primate with our body size (Jerison, 1973). Overview Quiz TLE

11 Encephalization Quotient (EQ) 1 g brain for hummingbird Hummingbird9.0 Human7.4 Dolphin5.6 Killer whale2.9 Chimpanzee2.5 Rhesus Monkey2.1 Elephant1.9 Whale1.8 Dog1.2 Cat1.0 Horse0.9 Sheep0.8 Mouse0.5 Rabbit0.4 Human neocortex is 3.2x larger in volume than nonhuman primate with our body size (Jerison, 1973). Overview Quiz TLE

12 EQ through evolutionary time Are we evolving into smarter and smarter creatures? Or was humanity a fluke? Are we evolving into smarter and smarter creatures? Or was humanity a fluke? In other words, was there a neural arms race in the past or an unusual mutation process in one line of primates? In other words, was there a neural arms race in the past or an unusual mutation process in one line of primates? Human neocortex is 3.2x larger in volume than nonhuman primate with our body size (Jerison, 1973). Overview Quiz TLE

13 Evolution of behavioral complexity Neural arms race in mammalian group only

14 In all mammalian orders including primates

15 Neurobehavioral Arms race

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17 Monkeys, Great Apes, and Us

18 Four leaps in braininess 1. To Primate 2. To Australopithecus 3. To Hominid 4. To Homo sapiens

19 Brainy Newcomers

20 Convolution Index = wrinkliness BUT: Cortex width: human 2.9 mm, dolphin 1.7 mm and conversative (not progressive) organization BUT: Cortex width: human 2.9 mm, dolphin 1.7 mm and conversative (not progressive) organization

21 Our Family

22 ...And Then There Was One Sixteen Species of Extinct Humans Sixteen Species of Extinct Humans Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus bahrelghazali Australopithecus aethiopicus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo erectus Homo antecessor Homo heidelbegensis Homo neanderthalensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus bahrelghazali Australopithecus aethiopicus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo erectus Homo antecessor Homo heidelbegensis Homo neanderthalensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus bahrelghazali Australopithecus aethiopicus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo erectus Homo antecessor Homo heidelbegensis Homo neanderthalensis Ardipithecus ramidus Australopithecus anamensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus bahrelghazali Australopithecus aethiopicus Paranthropus boisei Paranthropus robustus Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus garhi Homo rudolfensis Homo habilis Homo ergaster Homo erectus Homo antecessor Homo heidelbegensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens Homo sapiens Homo sapiens Homo sapiens

23 We shared planet with two other human species as recently as 25,000 years ago – Homo erectus and Neanderthals Coincided with unstable weather (4 ice ages) Coincided with unstable weather (4 ice ages)

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25 Can human brain get any bigger? Hominid Million yrs Weight (g) Australopithecus H habilis H erectus H heidelbergensis H neanderthalensis H sapiens

26 Encephalization abuse within species

27 General Features of Brain Evolution Relative increase in brain size Relative increase in brain size Relative increase in telencephalon (cortex) over midbrain and hindbrain Relative increase in telencephalon (cortex) over midbrain and hindbrain Relative increase in representation of sensory information over motor responses Relative increase in representation of sensory information over motor responses Relative increase in cortex involved in associative integration than (primary) reception Relative increase in cortex involved in associative integration than (primary) reception Greater differentiation of neocortex, with more cell diversity Greater differentiation of neocortex, with more cell diversity Relative importance of biophysical senses over chemical senses in more sentient species Relative importance of biophysical senses over chemical senses in more sentient species Convergent evolution in all mammalian groups of these morphophysiological features

28 Neoteny – Childlike features into adulthood

29 Bonobo and Common Chimp

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33 What did big brain gives us? Social or Cognitive Intelligence? Example of cognitive: Tool Use in Animals, termite fishing by bonobo Example of cognitive: Tool Use in Animals, termite fishing by bonobo

34 Social Intelligence The Machiavellian Hypothesis – Richard Alexander (1970s) suggested that main evolutionary pressure behind human intelligence was competition with other people, notably sexual competition between individuals of the same sex. The Machiavellian Hypothesis – Richard Alexander (1970s) suggested that main evolutionary pressure behind human intelligence was competition with other people, notably sexual competition between individuals of the same sex.

35 Dunbar (1992)- natural group size

36 Hominid social evolution


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