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The 20’s & 30’s The Roaring Twenties The Red Scare

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Presentation on theme: "The 20’s & 30’s The Roaring Twenties The Red Scare"— Presentation transcript:

1 The 20’s & 30’s The Roaring Twenties The Red Scare
Europe & America afraid of socialism challenged their way of life End to capitalism End to monarchies Known socialists were evicted Prohibition America was deemed too decadent Many unwanted pregnancies & Abortions Led to invention of the Condom Alcoholism skyrocketed after WWI Organized Crime began bootlegging -became viable enemy Woman’s Suffrage Women finally allowed to vote in 1920 Equality measures taken

2 The 20’s & 30’s The Roaring Twenties Revolution Once Again
Mexico declares independence Pancho Villa led the resistance assassinated in 1924 Spanish Civil War Final shred of Hapsburgs evicted from Europe General Francisco Franco takes control India Uprising against Britain Turkey declares its independence Racial Tensions in the South Rosewood, Fl Ku Klux Klan membership at all time high Economic Tensions Advent of Labor Laws to protect workers Coal strikes in Europe & America

3 The 20’s & 30’s Science of the Times Greater Understanding of the Atom
Neils Bohr determined path of the electron Francis William Aston found atomic isotopes Milliken finds cosmic rays in space Vavilov determines gene centers in human cells Greater Understanding of medicine vaccines for tuberculosis advent of birth control Culture of the Times Greater Understanding of People Charlie Birdseye develops frozen food The mass production of the automobile Baseball & Football gain national attention

4 The 20’s & 30’s Communication Increases
The radio goes into mass production Most households had radios & telephones People could communicate more freely News could be disseminated more freely World becomes smaller / ideas & culture are passed The invention of the Television German Scientist Theorized it could be done in the 1880’s 1906 – Lee De Forrest patented the triode vacuum tube In 1920 the tube became advanced enough to show images Ernst Alexanderson displayed the first home television in 1928 – sold patent to General Electric The first television broadcast occurs in England in 1936 First American Television Broadcast in 1939 The ability to pass information on visually TV suspended during WWII

5 The 20’s & 30’s The Roaring Twenties The Movie Age Silent Films
Charlie Chaplin – the comedy Mary Pickford – the diva Douglas Fairbanks – The swashbuckler Flash Gordon – The Future Cecil Be DeMille – The Director / Producer Rin Tin Tin – The first famous animal German Avante Garde – Nosferatu (1st vampire movie) Japanese Avante Garde – Yoru (the night) Ideas & Fantasy passed to the public The birth of the Movie House Appealed to all classes Lee Deforest invented film that could hold sound & Color Wizard of Oz – one of the first & most influential

6 Daily Express Building – lobby
Art Deco Ellis & Clarke Daily Express (1931) One of the First Art Deco spaces in England, this building lobby is a series of decorative panels of black Glass, Chrome and Mirrors. The Art Deco style took from the Art Nouveau & Ornament from the 19th Century. The ornament was now of modern materials. The advent of electrical light as well played into it. The shiny machined surfaces reflected light and created the illusion of depth. Daily Express Building – lobby

7 Art Deco Michael Roux-Spitz Salon des Artistes Decorateurs (1928)
In Paris in the Late 1920’s there was a series of exhibitions of the Art Deco style. This one exhibit highlights new furniture & patterns. The Dressing table takes on a series of steps that build up to the front. The finish on the dressing table is polished to almost a mirrored quality. The screen wall displays African patterns. This same pattern is seen in the carpet. The Art Deco Movement highlight not only the new materials of the time but also color & Sheen. It was supposed to be opulent & bold. Its aggressive patterns mimicked that of the Jazz of the time. The two go hand in hand Salon – Exhibit

8 SS Normandie – Dining Room
Art Deco Roger Expert & Richard Bouwens SS Normandie (1935) Art Deco invaded the high seas. As luxury liners became the most popular mode of continental travel, the need to be extravagant increased. Art Deco forms such as the Urns & tower light fixtures brought a level of whimsy. The furniture was deeply cushioned on metal frames. The walls were of variegated marbles displaying rich vein patterns. The color schemes were deep colors accented with either Silver or Gold Metal tones. SS Normandie – Dining Room

9 Radio City Music Hall – Theater
Art Deco Donald Deskey Radio City Music Hall (1932) Art Deco in America found its capital in New York. Rockefeller Center was the largest Art Deco development of the time. Radio City Music Hall was the centerpiece of the development. The theater is a series of Shells that form a Proscenium arch. The Shells are accented with cove lights to add to the visual texture. The furniture designed by Deskey combined aluminum & Bakelite. Radio City Music Hall – Theater

10 International Building - Lobby
Art Deco Raymond Hood, Reinhard & Hofmeister Rockefeller Center (1935) This huge development was highlighted by the International building. The lobby mixed marble with metal, bold colors with electric light. There was a lot of pedestrian traffic through the lobby since the building housed studios for radio shows of the time. The lobby was treated with bold colors. The Blues were thought to represent electricity, Black & Chrome were supposed to represent new technology. International Building - Lobby

11 Art Deco Raymond Loewy (1893-1986) Design Exhibition New York 1934
Loewy as seen here created the Art Deco office for this design exhibition. The office comprised of Modern & Art Deco furniture highlight curved forms & Shiny materials. Loewy was very influential in America. He not only designed furniture but also automobiles. Mock up office

12 Art Deco Russell Wright Tableware circa 1939
The tableware seen here became all the rage. The bright colors and fluid lines was very successful in terms of popularity. Items such as these available to everyone, helped bring modern design to the public with a high level of acceptance. Household tableware

13 Casa del Popolo - exterior Casa del Popolo - interior
European Modernism – 1930s Giuseppe Terragni Casa del Popolo 1938 Terragni was able to produce modern architecture during the Fascist Period in Italy. This building was meant to house political meetings. The concrete structure was in the Rationalist style. The style dictates strict geometries used in strict repetition. This is to create ideal proportion. Casa del Popolo - exterior Casa del Popolo - interior

14 Town Hall - Council Chamber
European Modernism – 1930s Willem Dudok Town Hall Dudok created this modern town hall in a the small Dutch town of Hilversum. It’s rigid lines & strict geometries create a strong presence on the countryside. The Council Chamber has a dignified presence created by the modern materials. The use of rich materials & vivid colors create a warm space prominent space. Town Hall - Council Chamber Town Hall - exterior

15 European Modernism – 1930s Marcel Breuer
Breuer upon the closing of the Bauhaus fled to England. He became not only a successful architect but also an industrial designer. Here we see the furniture he developed for mass production for the Isokon. Both Breuer & Alvar Aalto were the forerunners of bentwood furniture. Plywood Long Chair

16 Finland Finland Sweden controlled the country from the 12th-19th Century Russia took control in 1809 Gained its Independence from Russia in 1917 Became a republic Finally after nearly a millennium was free Early 20th Century brought Industrialization Previously was an agrarian society Nature still dominated its culture Rise of the Nazis & Communists Both sides hated each other Finland was in the middle Had to fend off invasion Finland Remained peaceful Country continued to Industrialize Cities began to develop

17 European Modernism – 1930s Alvar Aalto (1898 – 1976)
Turun Sanomat Sanomat - Exterior Aalto designed this industrial building to house a newspaper and its printing facility in the city of Turku. The Concrete structure is influenced by the Art Deco style. This is evident in the column forms. The ceiling was sealed to give it a shiny finish. Sanomat - Warehouse

18 European Modernism – 1930s Alvar Aalto (1898 – 1976)
Turun Sanomat Sanomat - Warehouse The Lobby was sealed concrete & Plaster walls with tile floors. Again the Art Deco style comes through. This is one of the better concrete structures in all of Europe. Sanomat – Office Lobby

19 European Modernism – 1930s Alvar Aalto (1898 – 1976)
Paimio Sanitorium In designing this hospital, Aalto began to look at the human condition. The design was based on how human’s heal. This was truly a case where form followed function. The Sprawling building stretches out & creates courtyards which allow natural light into all rooms. Nature blends its way from exterior to interior throughout this building with all of its roof decks. It was Aalto’s belief that nature was truly necessary to heal oneself. Sanitorium – Exterior Sanitorium – Plan

20 European Modernism – 1930s Alvar Aalto (1898 – 1976)
Paimio Sanitorium Aalto also believed that bright colors made people feel better and be more active. Psychological tests proved this to be true. So the lobby was treated with Bright yellow walls and floor tiles to offset the white. Blue was used as an accent. Sanitorium – Stair Sanitorium – lobby

21 European Modernism – 1930s Alvar Aalto (1898 – 1976)
Paimio Sanitorium Aalto studied rigorously the effects of lighting & heating on the infirmed. The diagrams show the interplay of natural & artificial light. The beds designed by Aalto were designed to be flexible. The spaces were designed for being horizontal. The ceiling colors were darker to give the patient a more restful color to look at. Even the bent wood chair had its purpose. It was designed to put a person at the correct angle to enhance their breathing. Sanitorium – chair Sanitorium – diagrams

22 Villa Mairea - Exterior
European Modernism – 1930s Alvar Aalto (1898 – 1976) Villa Mairea One of Aalto’s most impressive buildings. In it Aalto combined many different materials to create diverse forms. The Finish culture is extremely in tune with nature. Aalto’s work highlights this through the use of natural materials & Organic forms. Also design elements such as the pool and the rubble masonry wall add to the aesthetic. Villa Mairea - Exterior Villa Mairea - Plan

23 Villa Mairea - Entrance Villa Mairea – Living Room
European Modernism – 1930s Alvar Aalto (1898 – 1976) Villa Mairea Aalto uses wood ceilings and floors. The walls are plaster. All the furniture is designed by Aalto as well. Again, he likes to bring nature into the building. At the fireplace, Aalto carves out an opening that allows him to add a window and create a shelf. The form is as if it had been eroded away over time. Villa Mairea - Entrance Villa Mairea – Living Room

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