5Commas are so important because they change meaning. The old lady collected all sorts of things: silver, paper, hats, clocks and tablecloths.The old lady collected all sorts of things: silver paper, hats, clocks and tablecloths.The old lady collected all sorts of things: silver, paper hats, clocks and tablecloths.
7Commas are so important because they change meaning. Eats, Shoots, and LeavesEats Shoots and LeavesEats Shoots, and Leaves
8CommasWhile there are many different uses for the comma, almost 85% of commas used in written English are used in only three situations. Learn these three basic rules and you will know how to use commas over 4/5 of the time!
11Put a comma before a coordinating conjunction that separates two independent clauses. The child agreed, but the parent objected. Time flies when we’re having fun, and we’re always having fun.An independent clause is a complete sentence. It could stand alone. The comma and conjunction separate the two sentences.
12Put a comma after introductory words, phrases, or clauses. Yes, I do need that report.To apply for this job, you must have previous experience.This is my money, not yours.Again, look for the part of the sentence that is independent. A comma separates that part from the rest of the sentence
14Use commas to set off elements that interrupt or add information in a sentence. Freddy, who has a limp, was in a car accident.I am, as you have probably noticed, very nervous about this.Therefore, I would appreciate a response.Find the sentence. Notice how the comma or commas separate it from the other words.
15Other Important Uses When there is a list of words in a sentence: We will need hammers, nails, and a saw.The street was filled with angry protesters, shouting spectators, and police.Mr. Cherry was a warm, hospitable man.
16Commas are also used to break up longer sentences into smaller parts to make more sense. When he saw the pirate ship on the horizon, the captain sounded the alarm.She called as loudly as she could, but no-one could hear her.Notice these examples are also examples of other situations we have already discussed. The first is separating dependent and independent clauses and the second combines two independent clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction.
17To break up groups of numbers into thousands. 1,999,999Does anyone recognize the number below?Our national debt!
18Inside quotation marks. “We are leaving tomorrow,” said Manual
19Use commas before or surrounding the name or title of a person directly addressed. - Alisha, will you help with the party?- Yes, Doctor, I will.
20When writing a date. They met on February 14, 2010. (However, if any part of the date is omitted, do not use a comma.)They met in February 2010They met on February 14.Do not use commas in inverted dates:They met on 14 February 2010.
25http://www.speakwrite.net/reasons_for_commas.htm Reasons for Commas Reason 1: Items in a series The flag is red, white, and blue. We watched the heavy, pounding rain during the storm.Reason 2: Between independent clauses with a conjunction Conjunctions: and but for nor or so yet The mayor gave a speech, and reporters asked questions. The telephone rang several times, but no one answered it.Reason 3: After introductory expressions Jerry, please close the door. After the first snowflakes, we all got excited. Because the road were slick, Mary drove carefully.Reason 4: Before and after interrupting expressions Mow the lawn, Dennis, before it rains. Cecelia put the plant, a cactus, on the table. This is Greg Nelson, my cousin from Atlanta.Reason 5: With dates, addresses, & the closing of a letter Laura was born on May 29, 1980, in Canton, Ohio. Very sincerely yours,Reason 6: With quotations Maria said, "This is my jacket."
26Comma Practice Insert commas where needed in the following sentences. The child agreed but the parent objected.The child agreed. However the parent objected.The city must increase its tax base hence the citizens must be able to accept the additional tax burden.The student moreover has not yet turned in an acceptable project.The birth of Norma Kelly on June brought the…The birth of Norma Kelly in June 1974 brought the …The sunlight helped the flowers to grow but they require frequent watering.Ronald Reagan was originally an actor he turned to politics in the 1960s.We were not upset when the exam was postponed we were relieved.
27PracticeCommas Quiz1. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement.A) I took Angie, the one with the freckles to the movie last night.B) I took Angie, the one with the freckles, to the movie last night.C) I took Angie the one with the freckles, to the movie last night.D) I took Angie, the one with the freckles, to the movie, last night.2. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement.
28Practice A) Jeremy, and I, have had our share of arguments. PracticeA) Jeremy, and I, have had our share of arguments.B) Jeremy and I, have had our share of arguments.C) Jeremy and I have had our share of arguments.D) Jeremy and I have had, our share of arguments.3. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement.A) You are I am sure, telling the truth.B) You are, I am sure, telling the truth.
29Practice C) You are I am sure telling, the truth. PracticeC) You are I am sure telling, the truth.D) You are, I am sure telling the truth.4. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement.
30Practice A) She left Albany, New York, on January 18 of that year. PracticeA) She left Albany, New York, on January 18 of that year.B) She left Albany, New York on January 18, of that year.C) She left Albany New York, on January 18 of that year.D) She left, Albany New York, on January 18 of that year.
31Practice 5. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement. Practice5. Choose the sentence with the correct comma placement.A) I need, sugar, butter, and eggs from the grocery store.B) I need sugar, butter, and eggs, from the grocery store.C) I need sugar, butter and eggs, from the grocery store.D) I need sugar, butter, and eggs from the grocery store.Material created by Jane Straus and GrammarBook.com. Copyright by Jane Straus/GrammarBook.com. All materials contained in this membership subscription area may be reproduced and distributed. However, you may not alter the material or remove this notice of copyright.