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Slide 1 © Crown copyright 2008 Communication Language and Literacy Development Letters and Sounds Working on Phase 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © Crown copyright 2008 Communication Language and Literacy Development Letters and Sounds Working on Phase 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © Crown copyright 2008 Communication Language and Literacy Development Letters and Sounds Working on Phase 5

2 Slide 2 © Crown copyright 2008 Aims To develop subject knowledge of the alphabetic code when working on Phase 5 To develop systematic and cumulative planning of Phase 5 over a week To build continuous assessment for learning into Phase 5 To review new phonic resources using ICT

3 Slide 3 © Crown copyright 2008 Agenda Progress check: Phases 3 and 4 Subject knowledge Teaching high-frequency words Direct teaching of phonics Planning exemplification: Phase 5 over a week Application Review new IWB resources Letters and Sounds: Phase 5 Progress check: Phase 5

4 Slide 4 © Crown copyright 2008 Phase 5 Discuss with your elbow partner the Phase 5 teaching issues you have found or are concerned about

5 Slide 5 © Crown copyright 2008 Progress check for Phase 3 By the end of Phase 3 children should: give the sound when shown all or most Phase 2 and Phase 3 graphemes; find all or most Phase 2 and Phase 3 graphemes from a display when given the sound; be able to blend and read CVC words; be able to segment and make phonetically plausible attempts at spelling CVC words; be able to read the tricky words; be able to spell the tricky words; write each letter correctly when following a model.

6 Slide 6 © Crown copyright 2008 Progress check for Phase 4 By the end of Phase 4 children should: give the sound when shown any Phase 2 and Phase 3 grapheme; find any Phase 2 and Phase 3 grapheme from a display when given the sound; be able to blend and read words containing adjacent consonants; be able to segment and spell words containing adjacent consonants; be able to read tricky words; be able to spell tricky words; write each letter, usually correctly.

7 Slide 7 © Crown copyright 2008 Progress Tracking Revised phonics tracking sheet Spans the EYFS and KS1 Information indicates the phases children are currently working on linked to ongoing day-to- day assessment Periodic assessment to judge secure at Phase descriptors help to make judgements to decide at which phase the child is using his or her phonic knowledge and skills independently and consistently (page 22, Revised Practitioner folder)

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9 Slide 9 © Crown copyright 2008 Subject knowledge and systematic teaching and learning of phonics

10 Phonics at a glance phonics is skills of segmentation and blending knowledge of the alphabetic code +

11 Slide 11 © Crown copyright 2008 Phonics consists of: identifying sounds in spoken words; recognising the common spellings of each phoneme; blending phonemes into words for reading; segmenting words into phonemes for spelling.

12 Slide 12 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word.

13 Slide 13 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Grapheme Letter(s) representing a phoneme. taiigh

14 Phonemes and graphemes phoneme smallest unit of sound in a word grapheme a letter or sequence of letters that represents a phoneme Terminology

15 Slide 15 © Crown copyright 2008 Phonemes and graphemes Phonemes are represented by graphemes. A grapheme may consist of one (t), two (ch) or more letters (igh). A phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way: cat, kennel, choir. The same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme: me, met.

16 Letters and phonemes Letters: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Some of the 140 (approx.) letter combinations illustrated within words: cat, look, would, put, peg, bread, cart, fast, pig, wanted, burn, first, term, heard, work, log, want, torn, door, warn, plug, love, haul, law, call, pain, day, gate, station, wooden, circus, sister, sweet, heat, thief, these, down, shout, tried, light, my, shine, mind, coin, boy, road, blow, bone, cold, stairs, bear, hare, moon, blue, grew, tune, fear, beer, here, baby, sun, mouse, city, science, dog, tap, field, photo, van, game, was, hat, where, judge, giant, barge, yes, cook, quick, mix, Chris, zebra, please, is, lamb, then, monkey, comb, thin, nut, knife, gnat, chip, watch, paper, ship, mission, chef, rabbit, wrong, treasure, ring, sink. Phonemes: /b/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /wh/ /qu/ /y/ /z/ /th/ /th/ /ch/ /sh/ /zh/ /ng/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /ae/ /ee/ /ie/ /oe/ /ue/ /oo/ /ar/ /ur/ /or/ /au/ /er/ /ow/ /oi/ /air/ /ear/

17 Slide 17 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Blending Recognising the phonemes in a written word, for example c-u-p, sh-ee-p, and merging or synthesising them in the order in which they are written to pronounce the word: cup, sheep.

18 Slide 18 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Oral blending Hearing a series of spoken sounds (phonemes) and merging them together to make a spoken word. No text is used. For example, When a teacher calls out b-u-s or c-r-ay-o-n, the children say bus or crayon. This skill should be taught within Phase 1 before blending and reading printed words.

19 Slide 19 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Segmenting Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word (e.g. h-i-m, s-t-or-k) and writing down or manipulating letters for each sound (phoneme) to form the word him.

20 Slide 20 © Crown copyright 2008 Blending and Segmentation Blending Merging the individual phonemes together to pronounce a word. To read unfamiliar words a child must recognise (sound out) each grapheme, not each letter, then merge the phonemes together to make a word. Segmentation Hear and say the individual phonemes within words. In order to spell, children need to segment a word into its component phonemes and choose a grapheme to represent each phoneme.

21 Slide 21 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Digraph Two letters, which make one phoneme. A consonant digraph contains 2 consonants: sh ck th ll A vowel digraph contains at least one vowel: aiee ar oy

22 Slide 22 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Trigraph Three letters, which make one phoneme. igh dge

23 Slide 23 © Crown copyright 2008 Some definitions Split digraph A digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent – e.g. make.

24 Slide 24 © Crown copyright 2008 Enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation Phonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely

25 ss at the end of a word Double ss appears at the end of a word when: …a short vowel is in the middle of a one-syllable word. pusthisyesgas bus Tess less tossJess Rossguess bosshissBessgrass losskissdresslass fussmossmissmessmass uoiea

26 Why has think got a k at the end and not ck or c? k sound is preceded by a consonant, e.g. nk, sk ck is always preceded by a vowel shockclocksickrackpeckkick tickrocklocknecksockduck

27 123 cat bird fish knight These words each have three phonemes (separate sounds). Each of these phonemes is represented by a grapheme.

28 Sound buttons rainbright witch slaughter

29 foilbroom toastslight crayonspeed

30 crayon slighttoast broomfoil

31 Slide 31 © Crown copyright 2008 Using a phoneme frame

32 Segmenting greed weed speed deed creed bleed PHONEMESWORD

33 Segmenting deerggreed deewweed deepsspeed deeddeed deerccreed deelbbleed PHONEMESWORD

34 Slide 34 © Crown copyright 2008 CVC words - some points to note…

35 Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVC bow few saw her

36 Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVC bow few saw her

37 Consonant digraphs ll ss ff zz hill, mess, puff, fizz sh ch th wh ship, chat, thin, whip ng qu ck sing, quick

38 pig chick church car boydown curl wheel thorn for daydear head shirt CVC words – clarifying some misunderstandings

39 shirthead dearday forthorn wheelcurl downboy carchurch chickpig

40 head day thorn curl boy church pig shirt dear for wheel down car chick

41 deahhead aydday norththorn lurccurl oybboy church church gippig tirshshirt earddear orffor leewhwheel nowddown arccar ckichchick

42 Examples of CCVC, CVCC, CCCVC and CCVCC b l a ck s t r ea m c c v cc c c v c f ou n d b l a n k c v c c c c v c c

43 Consonant phonemes and their more usual graphemic representations /b/ baby /d/ dog /f/ field, photo /g/ game /h/ hat /j/ judge, giant, barge /k/ cook, sock, Chris /l/ lamb /m/ monkey,comb /n/ nut, knife, gnat /p/ paper /r/ rabbit, wrong /s/ sun, mouse, city, science /t/ tap /v/ van /w/ was /wh/ where /y/ yes /z/ zebra, please, is /th/ then /th/ thin /ch/ chip, watch /sh/ ship, mission, chef /zh/ treasure /ng/ ring

44 Vowel phonemes and a common graphemic representation

45 Some other ways of representing vowel phonemes

46 Grapheme choices glay glai proyn proin strou strow sproat sprowt dryt dright smayn smain groy groi

47 Vowel digraphs followed by a consonant or in a final position

48 Vowel digraphs (cont.)

49 Teaching the split digraph tietime treethese toetone cuecube ?aecave

50 Which of these words contain a split digraph? time made spike have come bride some shine

51 Which of these words contain a split digraph? time made spike have come bride some shine

52 Slide 52 © Crown copyright 2008 Activity In small groups make a list of all the words that you can think of that contain the phoneme on your chart and sort the words into their appropriate grapheme Investigate the frequency or infrequency of words and look for any patterns for feedback

53 Slide 53 © Crown copyright 2008 Teaching high-frequency words In the past, often regarded as needing to be taught as sight words Research shows when words are recognised at sight, this recognition is most efficient when it is underpinned by GP knowledge

54 Slide 54 © Crown copyright common words that recur frequently in much written material Most are decodable End of Phase 2, 26 HF words are decodable; further 12 by the end of Phase 3; further 6 by the end of Phase 4 During Phase 5 children learn many more graphemes, so more words become decodable Some of the tricky words have been taught in earlier phases 16 new tricky words to be taught in Phase 5 Teaching high-frequency words

55 Slide 55 © Crown copyright 2008 Teaching high-frequency words Letters and Sounds aligns decodable HF words with the GPCs that have been taught in each Phase A quarter of the 100 HF words occurring most frequently in childrens books are decodable at Phase 2 Half of the 100 words are decodable by end of Phase 4 The majority are decodable by end of Phase 5

56 Slide 56 © Crown copyright 2008 Teaching high-frequency words Those HF words that are not completely phonetically regular contain some known GPCs Start with what is known and register the tricky bit in the word

57 Slide 57 © Crown copyright 2008 Direct teaching of phonics

58 Slide 58 © Crown copyright 2008 Developing phonics learning across a week Every day – direct teaching of phonics At least once a week – Guided Reading Once a week minimum – Guided Writing

59 Slide 59 © Crown copyright 2008 Every day Children are provided with: opportunities throughout the day to engage independently in speaking, listening, reading and writing activities across the curriculum; interactive multi-sensory phonics session; session led by the practitioner of shared reading and/or shared writing; opportunities to hear a wide-ranging selection of stories, poems, rhymes and non-fiction.

60 Slide 60 © Crown copyright 2008 Planning discrete teaching of Phase 5

61 Slide 61 © Crown copyright 2008 Aims of Phase 5 Broad knowledge of graphemes and phonemes for use in reading and spelling Learn new graphemes and alternative pronunciations for the graphemes children already know Children able to quickly recognise graphemes of more than one letter Develop ability to choose the appropriate graphemes to represent phonemes Begin to build word-specific knowledge of the spellings of words Lists of words and sentences to support the activities in Phase 5 – practising blending for reading and segmenting for spelling

62 Model for daily teaching of phonics skills and knowledge REVISIT AND REVIEW recently and previously learned phoneme-grapheme correspondences, and blending and segmenting skills as appropriate TEACH new phoneme-grapheme correspondences; skills of blending and segmenting PRACTISE new phoneme-grapheme correspondences; skills of blending and segmenting APPLY new knowledge and skills while reading/writing

63 Route to planning – planning an overview for the week Identify the number of the week from Phase 5 timetable, for example: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, … etc. Decide which new graphemes to use for reading and spelling with adjacent consonants (about four per week) Experts suggest that children will more effectively learn the new grapheme for a phoneme if one representation is focused on in one phonic session, and a few days is left before introducing another grapheme for that same phoneme. For example: new graphemes: 1. ay 2. oe 3. ir 4. a – e Decide which new tricky words from the suggestions in the timetable you will teach for reading and which ones for spelling Begin to plan in the objectives and the detail on the weekly planning grid

64 Read: asked Write: there, were /oi/ oy /ur/ ir /oo/ u /oa/ o Wk 4 Read: looked, called Write: like, so /ow/ ou /ue/ oo /ar/ a /oa/ o- e Wk 3 Read: oh, their Write: said /igh/ i - e /ee/ e - e /ue u - e /oa/ oe Wk 2 Read: Mr, Mrs, people Write: some, have, come /ai/ a –e /igh/ ie /ee/ ea /ai/ ay Wk 1 Irregular/high- frequency words New graphemes to be taught over a week ( 4 per week ) Phase 5 Phase 5 Weeks 1 – 4

65 Slide 65 © Crown copyright 2008 Planning for discrete teaching of Phase 5 over a week A weeks planning exemplification

66 Slide 66 © Crown copyright 2008 Application of phonics across the curriculum

67 Word recognition Language comprehension Phonics (decoding - encoding) blending and segmenting Expanding written vocabulary Good word recognition Good comprehension Positive attitudes Understanding of oral and written language CLL (Literacy) MathsPE ART DT PSHE Science History Geography Science History Geography PE ART DT Reading to learn

68 Slide 68 © Crown copyright 2008 Phase 5 Using IWB resources

69 Slide 69 © Crown copyright 2008 Letters and sounds Phase 5 – Contents Suggested timetable Reading Spelling Assessment Word bank

70 Slide 70 © Crown copyright 2008 Progress check for Phase 5 By the end of Phase 5 children should be able to: give the sound when shown any grapheme that has been taught; for any given sound, write down the common graphemes; apply phonic knowledge and skill as the prime approach to reading and spelling unfamiliar words that are not completely decodable; read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words; read automatically all the words in the list of 100 high-frequency words; accurately spell most of the words in the list of 100 high-frequency words; form each letter correctly.

71 Slide 71 © Crown copyright 2008 Remember… Phonics is the step up to word recognition Automatic reading of all words – decodable and tricky – is the ultimate goal Confidence in building word-specific knowledge of the spelling of words Continuous language development

72 Crown copyright The content of this publication may be reproduced free of charge by schools and local authorities provided that the material is acknowledged as Crown copyright, the publication title is specified, it is reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. Anyone else wishing to reuse part or all of the content of this publication should apply to OPSI for a core licence. The permission to reproduce Crown copyright protected material does not extend to any material in this publication which is identified as being the copyright of a third party. Applications to reproduce the material from this publication should be addressed to: OPSI, The Information Policy Division, St Clements House, 2–16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ Fax: Slide 72 © Crown copyright 2008 Slide 72


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