Presentation on theme: "Communication Language and Literacy Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Communication Language and Literacy Development 01/05/08Communication Language and Literacy DevelopmentLetters and SoundsWorking on Phase 51
2 01/05/08AimsTo develop subject knowledge of the alphabetic code when working on Phase 5To develop systematic and cumulative planning of Phase 5 over a weekTo build continuous assessment for learning into Phase 5To review new phonic resources using ICT
3 Agenda Progress check: Phases 3 and 4 Subject knowledge 01/05/08AgendaProgress check: Phases 3 and 4Subject knowledgeTeaching high-frequency wordsDirect teaching of phonicsPlanning exemplification: Phase 5 over a weekApplicationReview new IWB resourcesLetters and Sounds: Phase 5Progress check: Phase 5
4 01/05/08Phase 5Discuss with your elbow partner the Phase 5 teaching issues you have found or are concerned about
5 Progress check for Phase 3 01/05/08Progress check for Phase 3By the end of Phase 3 children should:give the sound when shown all or most Phase 2 and Phase 3 graphemes;find all or most Phase 2 and Phase 3 graphemes from a display when given the sound;be able to blend and read CVC words;be able to segment and make phonetically plausible attempts at spelling CVC words;be able to read the tricky words;be able to spell the tricky words;write each letter correctly when following a model.Single syllable words consisting of Phase 2 and Phase 3 graphemesRead tricky words: he, she, we, me, be was, my, you, her, they all, areSpell tricky words: the, to, I no, go
6 Progress check for Phase 4 By the end of Phase 4 children should:give the sound when shown any Phase 2 and Phase 3 grapheme;find any Phase 2 and Phase 3 grapheme from a display when given the sound;be able to blend and read words containing adjacent consonants;be able to segment and spell words containing adjacent consonants;be able to read tricky words;be able to spell tricky words;write each letter, usually correctly.
7 Progress Tracking Revised phonics tracking sheet Spans the EYFS and KS1Information indicates the phases children are currently ‘working on’ linked to ongoing day-to- day assessmentPeriodic assessment to judge ‘secure at’Phase descriptors help to make judgements to decide at which phase the child is using his or her phonic knowledge and skills independently and consistently(page 22, Revised Practitioner folder)
9 Subject knowledge and systematic teaching and learning of phonics 01/05/08Subject knowledge and systematic teaching and learning of phonicsTo work successfully in Phase 5, teachers and practitioners need to develop a good knowledge of the alphabetic code from Phase 2 through to Phase 5.It is therefore essential frequently to revisit subject knowledge, to develop a deeper understanding of how the code works in order to support learning and teaching in Phase 5.
10 skills of segmentation and blending knowledge of the alphabetic code 01/05/08Phonics at a glancephonics isskills of segmentation and blendingknowledge of the alphabetic code+Explanationa phoneme can be represented by one or more letterssh, th, eethe same phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one wayrain, may, lakethe same spelling may represent more than one phonememean, deaf10
11 Phonics consists of: identifying sounds in spoken words; 01/05/08identifying sounds in spoken words;recognising the common spellings of each phoneme;blending phonemes into words for reading;segmenting words into phonemes for spelling.Phonics consists of:
12 Some definitions A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. 01/05/08Some definitionsA phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word.
13 Some definitions Grapheme Letter(s) representing a phoneme. t ai igh 01/05/08Some definitionsGraphemeLetter(s) representing a phoneme.t ai igh
14 Phonemes and graphemes 01/05/08Phonemes and graphemesTerminologyphonemesmallest unit of sound in a wordgraphemea letter or sequence ofletters that representsa phoneme
15 Phonemes and graphemes 01/05/08Phonemes and graphemesPhonemes are represented by graphemes.A grapheme may consist of one (t), two (ch) or more letters (igh).A phoneme can be represented/spelled in more than one way: cat, kennel, choir.The same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme: me, met.
16 Letters and phonemes01/05/08Letters: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y zSome of the 140 (approx.) letter combinations illustrated within words:cat, look, would, put, peg, bread, cart, fast, pig, wanted, burn, first, term, heard, work, log, want, torn, door, warn, plug, love, haul, law, call, pain, day, gate, station, wooden, circus, sister, sweet, heat, thief, these, down, shout, tried, light, my, shine, mind, coin, boy, road, blow, bone, cold, stairs, bear, hare, moon, blue, grew, tune, fear, beer, here, baby, sun, mouse, city, science, dog, tap, field, photo, van, game, was, hat, where, judge, giant, barge, yes, cook, quick, mix, Chris, zebra, please, is, lamb, then, monkey, comb, thin, nut, knife, gnat, chip, watch, paper, ship, mission, chef, rabbit, wrong, treasure, ring, sink.Phonemes:/b/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /wh/ /qu/ /y/ /z/ /th/ /th/ /ch/ /sh/ /zh/ /ng/ /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ /ae/ /ee/ /ie/ /oe/ /ue/ /oo/ /ar/ /ur/ /or/ /au/ /er/ /ow/ /oi/ /air/ /ear/Explain that a grapheme is a letter or letters making one phoneme.eg. there are not three graphemes in /igh/ three letters, one grapheme, one phoneme.
17 Some definitions Blending Recognising the phonemes in a 01/05/08Some definitionsBlendingRecognising the phonemes in awritten word, for example c-u-p, sh-ee-p,and merging or synthesising them in theorder in which they are written to pronouncethe word: ‘cup’, ‘sheep’.p – ai – d paids – w – ee – p sweep
18 Some definitions Oral blending Hearing a series of spoken sounds 01/05/08Some definitionsOral blendingHearing a series of spoken sounds(phonemes) and merging them together to makea spoken word. No text is used.For example, When a teacher calls out ‘b-u-s’ or‘c-r-ay-o-n’,the children say ‘bus’ or ‘crayon’.This skill should be taught within Phase 1before blending and reading printed words.
19 Some definitions Segmenting 01/05/08Some definitionsSegmentingIdentifying the individual sounds in a spoken word (e.g. h-i-m, s-t-or-k) and writing down or manipulating letters for each sound (phoneme) to form the word ‘him’.
20 Blending and Segmentation 01/05/08Blending and SegmentationBlendingMerging the individual phonemes together to pronounce a word.To read unfamiliar words a child must recognise (sound out) each grapheme, not each letter, then merge the phonemes together to make a word.SegmentationHear and say the individual phonemes within words.In order to spell, children need to segment a word into its component phonemes and choose a grapheme to represent each phoneme.
21 Some definitions Digraph Two letters, which make one phoneme. 01/05/08Some definitionsDigraphTwo letters, which make one phoneme.A consonant digraph contains 2 consonants:sh ck th llA vowel digraph contains at least one vowel:ai ee ar oyConsonant digraphs are not identified as in CVC words.Ship is ‘digraph vowel consonant’ CVC.Church is ‘consonant digraph vowel consonant digraph’ CVC.
22 Some definitions Trigraph Three letters, which make one phoneme. 01/05/08Some definitionsTrigraphThree letters, which make one phoneme.igh dge
23 Some definitions Split digraph 01/05/08Some definitionsSplit digraphA digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent – e.g. ‘make’.
24 Enunciation Teaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciation 01/05/08EnunciationTeaching phonics requires a technical skill in enunciationPhonemes should be articulated clearly and precisely
25 pus this yes gas bus Tess less toss Jess Ross guess boss hiss Bess 01/05/08‘ss’ at the end of a word Double ‘ss’ appears at the end of a word when: …a short vowel is in the middle of a one-syllable word.pusthisyesgasbusTesslesstossJessRossguessbosshissBessgrasslosskissdresslassfussmossmissmessmassuoieaExceptions in redContraction of omnibus – busLetter set 5
26 Why has ‘think’ got a ‘k’ at the end and not ‘ck’ or ‘c’? 01/05/08Why has ‘think’ got a ‘k’ at the end and not ‘ck’ or ‘c’?‘k’ sound is preceded by a consonant, e.g.‘nk’, ‘sk’‘ck’ is always preceded by a vowelLetter set 4Consonant ‘c’ not usually used at the end of a wordShort vowel /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/shockclocksickrackpeckkicktickrocklocknecksockduck
27 01/05/08123catbirdfishknighThese words each have three phonemes (separate sounds). Each of these phonemes is represented by a grapheme.
33 Segmenting d ee r g greed w weed p s speed deed c creed l b bleed 01/05/08deerggreedwweedpsspeeddeedccreedlbbleedPHONEMESWORDChoose a set of target words that have a recognisable pattern to them.33
34 CVC words - some points to note… 01/05/08CVC words - some points to note…CVC refers to phonemes not letters.
35 Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVC 01/05/08Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVCbowfewsawherTeachers, TAs and some publishers often incorrectly include words in this group (refer to quiz).Can you think of any other examples?ANSWERS COULD INCLUDE: WORDS CONTAINING A DIGRAPH MADE UP OF ONE VOWEL AND ONE CONSONANT. e.g. boy35
36 Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVC 01/05/08Words sometimes wrongly identified as CVCbowfewsawherTeachers, TAs and some publishers often incorrectly include words in this group (refer to quiz).Can you think of any other examples?ANSWERS COULD INCLUDE: WORDS CONTAINING A DIGRAPH MADE UP OF ONE VOWEL AND ONE CONSONANT. e.g. boy36
37 Consonant digraphs ll ss ff zz hill, mess, puff, fizz sh ch th wh 01/05/08Consonant digraphsll ss ff zzhill, mess, puff, fizzsh ch th whship, chat, thin, whipng qu cksing, quickCVC refers to phonemes not letters.The above are CVC words containing consonant digraphs.Thereforeduck is a CVC word /d/ /u/ /ck/chip is a CVC word /ch/ /i/ /p/Sheep is a CVC word /sh/ee/p/37
38 CVC words – clarifying some misunderstandings 01/05/08CVC words – clarifying some misunderstandingspig chickchurch carboy downcurl wheelthorn forday dearhead shirtThis slide is designed to act as a check of understanding of which words are CVC words and which are not.Which of the above are not CVC words?Segment the phonemes.38
39 shirt head dear day for thorn wheel curl down boy car church chick pig 01/05/08shirtheaddeardayforthornwheelcurldownboycarchurchchickpig
40 head day thorn curl boy pig shirt dear for wheel down car chick 01/05/08headdaythorncurlboychurchpigshirtdearforwheeldowncarchick
41 d ea h head ay day n or th thorn l ur c curl oy b boy ch g i p pig t 01/05/08deahheadaydaynorththornlurccurloybboychchurchgippigtirshshirtearddearorfforleewhwheelnowdownarccarckichchick
42 Examples of CCVC, CVCC, CCCVC and CCVCC 01/05/08Examples of CCVC, CVCC, CCCVC and CCVCCb l a ck s t r ea mc c v c c c c v cf ou n d b l a n kc v c c c c v c cACTIVITYConsider with reference to the above slide, what could be the most common errors practitioners may make when blending and segmenting these words.Synthetic phonics focuses on the smallest units of sound in a word.There are usually 2 or 3 phonemes within a number of consecutive (adjacent) consonants.e.g. strap contains five phonemes /s/ /t/ /r/ /a/ /p/‘Str’ is not a phoneme‘Ap’ is not a phonemeChildren need to be taught to blend and segment these phonemes within CCVC and CVCC words.Teachers should not be teaching ‘sl’, ‘sm’, ‘sn’ etc as units of sound which need to be learned individually – this takes far too long, is unnecessary and doesn’t improve children’s spelling and reading skills as quickly.The key here is applying the generic skill of blending to the phonemes in the word (using the taught knowledge of sound-spelling correspondences), from left to right in the order in which they are recorded in the word.42
44 Vowel phonemes and a common graphemic representation 01/05/08Vowel phonemes and a common graphemic representation
45 Some other ways of representing vowel phonemes 01/05/08Some other ways of representing vowel phonemes
46 Grapheme choices glay glai proyn proin strou strow sproat sprowt 01/05/08Grapheme choicesglay glaiproyn proinstrou strowsproat sprowtdryt drightsmayn smaingroy groiAnimated slide. Put up title but not grapheme choices until after this activity.Vowel digraphs followed by a consonant or in a final position.Tell delegates that you are going to ask them to write down a selection of nonsense words.We are using nonsense words to deskill them and to highlight how, when you are not familiar with a word, you need to use all your listening skills to tune into the sounds in the word, and that delegates will need to focus on your mouth as you articulate the word. Essential strategies to apply when working with children.There are no wrong or right answers.We are investigating where graphemes are most likely to occur – followed by a consonant or in final position.You will use what phonic knowledge you have. Adults will have no problem with finding a reasonable choice.Children will apply what they know. Useful assessment of phonic acquisition.As they are nonsense words, clear enunciation is crucial.Observe how they really do have to fix their sight on your mouth and listen very carefully to lock into the phonemes within the words. The word will need to be articulated several times for them to be able to remember.Worth commenting on your observations of how they do the above.Feedback possible choices on slide. There will be others, eg. split-digraphs often offered.
47 Vowel digraphs followed by a consonant or in a final position 01/05/08Vowel digraphs followed by a consonant or in a final position
49 Teaching the split digraph 01/05/08Teaching the split digraphtie timetree thesetoe tonecue cube?ae caveL and S phase 5 DVD Reading
50 Which of these words contain a split digraph? 01/05/08Which of these words contain a split digraph?time madespike havecome bridesome shineA misunderstanding: have, come, some, are not split digraphs
51 Which of these words contain a split digraph? 01/05/08Which of these words contain a split digraph?time madespike havecome bridesome shine
52 01/05/08ActivityIn small groups make a list of all the words that you can think of that contain the phoneme on your chart and sort the words into their appropriate graphemeInvestigate the frequency or infrequency of words and look for any patterns for feedback
53 Teaching high-frequency words 01/05/08Teaching high-frequency wordsIn the past, often regarded as needing to be taught as ‘sight words’Research shows when words are recognised at sight, this recognition is most efficient when it is underpinned by GP knowledgeThis has been the common approach to teaching high-frequency words in the past. It was felt that they needed to be recognised as visual wholes without much attention to GPC in them, even when those correspondences are straightforward.
54 Teaching high-frequency words 100 common words that recur frequently in much written materialMost are decodableEnd of Phase 2, 26 HF words are decodable; further 12 by the end of Phase 3; further 6 by the end of Phase 4During Phase 5 children learn many more graphemes, so more words become decodableSome of the ‘tricky’ words have been taught in earlier phases16 new ‘tricky’ words to be taught in Phase 5
55 Teaching high-frequency words 01/05/08Teaching high-frequency wordsLetters and Sounds aligns decodable HF words with the GPCs that have been taught in each PhaseA quarter of the 100 HF words occurring most frequently in children’s books are decodable at Phase 2Half of the 100 words are decodable by end of Phase 4The majority are decodable by end of Phase 5
56 Teaching high-frequency words 01/05/08Teaching high-frequency wordsThose HF words that are not completely phonetically regular contain some known GPCsStart with what is known and register the ‘tricky bit’ in the word.
57 Direct teaching of phonics 01/05/08Direct teaching of phonics
58 Developing phonics learning across a week 01/05/08Developing phonics learning across a weekEvery day – direct teaching of phonicsAt least once a week – Guided ReadingOnce a week minimum – Guided Writing
59 Every day Children are provided with: 01/05/08Every dayChildren are provided with:opportunities throughout the day to engage independently in speaking, listening, reading and writing activities across the curriculum;interactive multi-sensory phonics session;session led by the practitioner of shared reading and/or shared writing;opportunities to hear a wide-ranging selection of stories, poems, rhymes and non-fiction.Every day:An interactive multi-sensory phonics session, led by the practitioner, comprising direct teaching and opportunities to practise and apply new learning. Inside and outside. Allows learners to explore and practise their growing phonics knowledge and blending and segmenting skills. A session led by the practitioner of Shared Reading and/or Shared Writing so that reading and writing strategies, including the use of phonics, are clearly demonstrated in a purposeful context. comprising of direct teaching and opportunities to practise and apply new learning Opportunities throughout the day, inside and outside, to engage independently in speaking, listening, reading and writing activities across all areas of learning which allow the child to explore and practise their growing phonic knowledge and blending and segmenting skills. Opportunities to hear a wide ranging selection of stories, poems, rhymes and non fiction as part of a regular Read-aloud programme. As part of a regular read-aloud programme so that reading and writing strategies including the use of phonics are clearly demonstrated in purposeful context.
60 Planning discrete teaching of Phase 5 01/05/08Planning discrete teaching of Phase 5
61 Aims of Phase 5Broad knowledge of graphemes and phonemes for use in reading and spellingLearn new graphemes and alternative pronunciations for the graphemes children already knowChildren able to quickly recognise graphemes of more than one letterDevelop ability to choose the appropriate graphemes to represent phonemesBegin to build word-specific knowledge of the spellings of wordsLists of words and sentences to support the activities in Phase 5 – practising blending for reading and segmenting for spelling
62 Model for daily teaching of phonics skills and knowledge 01/05/08Model for daily teaching of phonics skills and knowledgeREVISIT AND REVIEWrecently and previously learned phoneme-grapheme correspondences, and blending and segmenting skills as appropriateTEACHnew phoneme-grapheme correspondences; skills of blending and segmentingThis teaching sequence assumes that practitioners are working to the principles of effective assessment for learning for all children.PRACTISEnew phoneme-grapheme correspondences; skills of blending and segmentingAPPLYnew knowledge and skills while reading/writing
63 Route to planning – planning an overview for the week 01/05/08Route to planning – planning an overview for the weekIdentify the number of the week from Phase 5 timetable,for example: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, … etc.Decide which new graphemes to use for reading and spelling with adjacent consonants (about four per week)Experts suggest that children will more effectively learn the new grapheme for a phoneme if one representation is focused on in one phonic session, and a few days is left before introducing another grapheme for that same phoneme.For example: new graphemes: 1. ay oe ir a – eDecide which new ‘tricky’ words from the suggestions in the timetable you will teach for reading and which ones for spellingBegin to plan in the objectives and the detail on the weekly planning grid
64 Phase 5 Weeks 1 – 4 /oi/ oy /ur/ ir /oo/ u /oa/ o Wk 4 /ow/ ou /ue/ oo 01/05/08Read: askedWrite: there, were/oi/oy/ur/ir/oo/u/oa/oWk 4Read: looked, calledWrite: like, so/ow/ou/ue/oo/ar/ao- eWk 3Read: oh, theirWrite: said/igh/i - e/ee/e - e/ueu - eoeWk 2Read: Mr, Mrs, peopleWrite: some, have, come/ai/a –eieeaayWk 1Irregular/high- frequency wordsNew graphemes to be taught over a week ( 4 per week )Phase 5
65 Planning for discrete teaching of Phase 5 over a week 01/05/08Planning for discrete teaching of Phase 5 over a weekA week’s planning exemplificationTalk through either version of the Phase 5 planning – short or longer version.
66 Application of phonics across the curriculum 01/05/08Application of phonics across the curriculum
67 Understanding of oral and written language Language comprehension Word recognition01/05/08Phonics(decoding -encoding)blending andsegmentingExpanding writtenvocabularyARTDTGood wordrecognitionGoodcomprehensionPositive attitudesReading to learnPEScienceHistoryGeographyMathsScienceHistoryGeographyPEARTDTPSHECLL (Literacy)This model illustrates the development and application of a broad and rich language curriculum and understanding of language comprehension, oral and written. It illustrates how development of language comprehension together with developing word recognition skills through phonics, moves from learning to read to reading to learn and how the two elements need purposeful application across the curriculum.Phonics should be time limited as decoding so we move from learning to read, to reading to learn.This model tries to animate how the SVR gives purpose to communication, language and literacy.Development and use of Communication Language and Literacy are at the heart of young children’s learning.Drivers for all learning are PSED and CLL/PSHE/ Literacy - disposition to learn and the ability to communicate and use language.Oral comprehension should be used and developed across the currriculum -. purposeful talk -. developing vocabulary through social interaction across the areas of the curriculum. As decoding skills develop, eventually understanding written as well as oral language.This should dovetail with developing word recognition through phonics. (The simple view of reading).Purpose to decode and encode through actively engaged in learning situations using all their senses and developing oral language through the areas of learning.The model will now have formed into an ‘L’ shape as an early ‘learning to read’ learner.To complete the model we aim for children who have good word recognition and good comprehension. Transferring from ‘Learning to read to reading to learn’ – end of strand 5 Renewed framework.Challenges for practitioners:knowing those developmental stages in language developmentexplicit planning for language developmentassessment through observation of the key learning principles – knowing and using signs and symbolsknowing and using words – structuring language – making language workDeveloping vocabulary through social interactionExpanding word recognition skills through blending and segment phonic knowledge.Create purposeful opportunities to apply phonic skills across the curriculum in reading and writing.Understanding of oral and written languageLanguage comprehension
68 Phase 5 Using IWB resources 01/05/08 Demonstrate some of the IWB resources to support suggested activities for Phase 5 from Letters and Sounds.Make clear that using ICT resources is not a replacement for good teaching using practical, visual, aural and kinaesthetic approaches to learning, but in the ‘teach’ part of the four part teaching sequence, where new learning is being demonstrated by the class teacher, ICT can engage children in the learning and enhance it. The same resources can then provide a resource that can be used with and by children independently to help them secure and internalise their learning by practising and applying what they have learned through the medium of ICT. The ‘practise’ part of the four-part teaching sequence should involve all the children practising their new learning in multi-sensory interactive approaches.
69 Letters and sounds Phase 5 – Contents Suggested timetable Reading 01/05/08Letters and soundsPhase 5 – ContentsSuggested timetableReadingSpellingAssessmentWord bankLetters and Sounds, Page 130
70 Progress check for Phase 5 01/05/08Progress check for Phase 5By the end of Phase 5 children should be able to:give the sound when shown any grapheme that has been taught;for any given sound, write down the common graphemes;apply phonic knowledge and skill as the prime approach to reading and spelling unfamiliar words that are not completely decodable;read and spell phonically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words;read automatically all the words in the list of 100 high-frequency words;accurately spell most of the words in the list of 100 high-frequency words;form each letter correctly.
71 Remember… Phonics is the step up to word recognition 01/05/08Remember…Phonics is the step up to word recognitionAutomatic reading of all words –decodable and tricky – is the ultimate goalConfidence in building word-specific knowledge of the spelling of wordsContinuous language development
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