4- - + + Good language comprehension, poor word recognition Good word recognition, good language comprehensionWord Recognition-+Poor word recognition, poor language comprehensionGood word recognition, poor language comprehensionA simple way of sorting your class?-Language comprehension
5The Road to Phonics Phonological Awareness Phonemic Awareness Phonics Phonological awareness is the ability to be aware of sounds within words and to be able to break down words into syllables and into phonemes.Pupils who have difficulties in this area may have:problems identifying syllables in polysyllabic wordsproblems recognising rhyming wordsdifficulty in generating rhymedifficulty identifying initial, medial and final phonemes in wordsdifficulty with phoneme blendingvisual strengths (learning better from charts, diagrams, videos, demonstrations and other visual materials)a good visual memory (bein able to visualise information and present it in the form of mindmaps, diagrams, charts, posters, illustrations)kinaesthetic strengths (learning better through using concrete materials, practical experiences and multisensory techniques).Activities to develop phonological awarenessSyllable count – say the word (eg. yesterday), then use fingers to count the syllables (yes/ter/day).Finnish the name – adult to say the first syllable of a two syllable name (eg. Hen...), then ask the pupil to complete it (Henry).Finish the word – adult to say the first syllable of a two syllable word (eg. zeb...) then ask the pupil to complete it (zebra).I spy 1 – initial sounds (everyday items in the classroom).I spy 2 – initial sounds (pictorial choice).Pairs – matching pictures to initial sounds.Bingo – matching pictures to initial sounds.I spy 3 – 'I went to the zoo/park/seaside and saw something beginning with...' (initial sounds).Sound/picture mapping – match picture to sound by drawing lines.I spy 4 – initial CV (consonant-vowel) blending (I am thinking of something beginning with ca...).Pelmanism – matching pictures to initial CV.Missing vowels – helps the pupils to become aware that there could be more than one choice of vowels for each word (eg. bt – bat, bet, bit, but).Line-links – ask the pupils to draw lines to link initial sounds to rhyme endings (eg. b-ed/r-ed, m-an/c-an).Rhyme wordsearches.Rhyme pelmanism 1 – pictorial.Rhyme pelmanism 2 – words.Rhyme families 1 – collect rhyming pictures ('Can I have a picture that rhymes with...').Rhyme families 2 – collect rhyming words ('Can I have a word that rhymes with...').Rhyming cloze (oral) – using traditional rhymes, action rhymes, songs and jingles.Blends and ends – matching initial consonant blends to rhyme endings (eg. bl-ack/tr-ack).Dominoes – using blends and ends.Tongue twisters – initial sounds and consonant blends (eg. six silly swans swam out to sea).Odd word out – both oral and written (eg. ring, sing, song, thing).Sense or nonsense – as the pupils to identify the words that make sense by blending the phonemes (eg. brick, quick, stick, smick, trick).Compund word pairs – collect word pairs (eg. sea/side, tea/bag).Syllable sort – collect syllables to form polysyllabic words (eg. yes/ter/day, af/ter/noon).
6Phonological awareness One supona timeOnce up onatimeOnce upon a timePhonological awareness* is the ability to segment language aurally. The most well known example of this would be onset-rime segmentation. The ability to show awareness of rime has been shown in the research to be a key skill requirement for successful reading. As another example: I was working in a class where the children were asked to begin a story "Once upon a time" and only a few of them were successfully able to do this. Their attempts showed that most of them were not segmenting these four words correctly at the phonological level. There were all sorts of variations: One supona time Once up onatime, etc I also recently watched a video of a teacher helping children to learn to write sentences by getting them (among other things) to 'hear' the sentence and segment her language aurally. *Phonemic awareness* is the ability to discriminate the individual phonemes within words - the sounds which make up that word. Both phonological and phonemic awareness are aural skills. Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness. *Phonic awareness* is the ability to represent the sounds of phonemes with appropriate letters or letter combinations.
7What words should we use? LetterLower caseCapitalWordPhonemeGraphemeDigraphTrigraphWhich of these words do you unerstand?ACTIVITY – define them to each other
8Phonic terminology: some definitions Correct terminology should be introduced from YR onwards.Children do not have a problem using phonic terminology (in fact they are often very proud of their ability to do so).However, you are likely to meet resistance from some teachers who consider it ‘over the top’ and unnecessary to teach this vocabulary to children. It is sometimes worth using a numeracy analogy with these staff: we wouldn’t dream of teaching 3-D shapes to children and using the word ‘ball’ instead of ‘sphere’ or ‘box’ instead of cube/cuboid.The principle with phonic vocabulary is exactly the same – it’s just that we haven’t been used to using these words with children until relatively recently.Using phonic terminology from the outset ensures accuracy and promotes shared understanding between practitioners and practitioners and children.
9Some definitions A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word The following eight slides illustrate the phonic vocabulary that should be used by practitioners in their teaching sessions.
10Some definitionsGraphemeLetter(s) representing a phonemet ai igh
11Some definitions Digraph Two letters, which make one sound A consonant digraph contains two consonantssh ck th llA vowel digraph contains at least one vowelai ee ar oyThe following two definitions are key – digraph and trigraph.Adjacent consonants are often incorrectly classified as digraphs and trigraphs e.g.tr as in trapsp as in spinstr as in stringspl as in splash
12Some definitionsTrigraphThree letters, which make one soundigh dge
13Some definitions Split digraph A digraph in which the two letters are not adjacent (e.g. make)ACTIVITYHow can you deliver this message about using correct terminology to less experienced practitioners who may find this challenging?
14Phonemes – hear, isolate, identify cat dog pip finslip stop clip spotship, chat, think, clockcow, stain, seat, meet, thiefACTIVITYCan you do these OK?
15a e i o u Vowel phonemes Find the CHEEKY MONKEY vowels ACTIVITY: vowel phoneme sheets
16Vowel phonemes Cat Peg Bread Pig Wanted Log want Plug Love Pain Day SweetHeatThiefTheseTriedLightMyShineMindRoadBlowBoneColdMoonBlueGrewTuneCatPegBreadPigWantedLogwantPlugLovePainDayGateStation
17Vowel phonemes Look Would Put Cart Fast (regional) Burn First Term TornDoorWarn (regional)HaulLawCallWoodenCircusSisterDownShoutCoinBoyStairsBearHareFearBeerhereLookWouldPutCartFast (regional)BurnFirstTermHeardwork
18Progression in phonics p13 Progression in phonic skills and knowledge Progression in phonics (1999), p. 6Step 1hearing and discriminating general sounds, speech sounds and patternsCreate opportunities for children to explore other sounds that they can makewith their voices:Ð Make your voice go down a slide Ð Wheee!Ð Make your voice bounce like a ball Ð Boing, Boing. (Let them show you withtheir hands too.)Ð Find out someone has been telling tales Ð aw.Ð Sound really disappointed Ð oh.Ð Look astonished Ð ooooooo!Ð Relax into a chair like an old man Ð ahahahahaha,or shout in terror Ð ahahahahah!Ð Hiss like a snake Ð sssssssssss.Ð Keep everyone quiet: shshshshsh, or be a steam train coming to a halt Ð chch-ch-ch-ch-shshshshshshsh.Ð Gently moo like a cow Ð mmmmmmmm.Ð Be an old woman who is hard of hearing Ð e e e.You can concoct sounds that suggest all the phonemes in the language.BEAR HUNTExploring soundsProgression in phonics p13
19Progression in phonic skills and knowledge Progression in phonics (1999), p. 6 Step 2hearing phonemes /s/, /m/, /k/, /t/, /g/, /h/ in initial positionKnowledge of letters:s, m, c, t, g, hSit in circleStart slow clapFat – cat – rat –On word rat, pass “pebble” – receiver says another rhyming word (can pass or repeat)Pebble game
20Progression in phonic skills and knowledge Progression in phonics (1999), p. 6 Step 3hearing phonemes /s/, /m/, /k/, /t/, /g/ in final positionKnowledge of lettersss, ck, l, n, d, k, sh, chACTIVITYCircle swap shopHand out wordsCall out phonemeShout SWAP SHOPIf you have same phoneme, swap placesCircle swap
21Progression in phonic skills and knowledge Progression in phonics (1999), p. 6 Step 4 hearing phonemes /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ in medial position; CVC segmenting and blending, reading and spellingKnowledge of lettersa, e, i, o, uf, qu, b, r, j, p, th, ngCroakerCROAKER activityPuppet finding it difficult to say some wordsChild pulls object:Horse = houseJelly = jollyNurse = nieceWitch = watch
22Progression in phonic skills and knowledge Progression in phonics (1999), p. 6 Step 5C(C)V(C)C segmenting and blending, reading and spellingKnowledge of lettersv, w, x, y, zMake specified word – other checks itSwap and so onPage 28 (NLS : PIP)Fans
23Progression in phonic skills and knowledge Progression in phonics (1999), p. 6 Step 6C V C segmenting and blending, reading and spellingKnowledge of lettersai, ee, ie, oa, oo, or, ar, ir, oi, ouYES NO cardsSet of silly questions(to read words in context)Silly questions
24Progression in phonic skills and knowledge Progression in phonics (1999), p. 6 Step 7C V C segmenting and blending, reading and spellingKnowledge of lettersay, a-e, ea, igh, y, i-e, ow, o-e, oe, ew, ue, u-e, oy, ow, er, ur, aw, air, ear, ooACTIVITY 1Phoneme count cardsACTIVITY 2BingoBingo