Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

2 Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Essential nutrients are substances the body must get from food, because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs There are 45 essential nutrients broken down into six classifications: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Water 2 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

3 Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Six classes of essential nutrients, three supply energy: Fat = 9 calories per gram Protein = 4 calories per gram Carbohydrate = 4 calories per gram One kilocalorie represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree centigrade 3 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

4 The Digestive System 4 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

5 ProteinsThe Basis of Body Structure Proteins form key parts of the bodys main structural componentsmuscles and bonesand of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones The building blocks of protein are amino acids Types of Protein Complete (meat sources) Incomplete (plant sources) Adequate daily protein intake for adults is.8 grams per kg of body weight AMDR for protein for adults is 10-35% of total daily calories 5 Refer to Table 8.2 for popular foods and the amount of protein (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

6 FatsEssential in Small Amounts Fats, also known as lipids, supply energy, insulate the body, support and cushion organs, absorb fat-soluble vitamins, and add flavor and texture to foods Types of fats: Saturated Unsaturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Hydrogenation Trans fatty acids Recommended intake: Men 17 g of linoleic acid and 1.6 g of alpha-linoleic acid Women 12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linoleic acid AMDR for total fat is 20-35% of total calories 6 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

7 The Parts of a Whole Grain Kernel 7 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

8 Trans Fatty Acids Trans fat is an unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenation Hydrogenation is a process in which hydrogen is added to unsaturated fats, turning liquid fats into solids Many prepared foods use this process In large amounts, trans fats can lower HDL (good cholesterol) levels and promote the risk of heart disease For heart health, it is important to limit your consumption of both saturated and trans fats by examining ingredients in food products 8 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

9 Fats and Health Many studies have examined the role of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease Most Americans consume more saturated fats than trans fats, both of which can raise LDL (low density lipoprotein/bad cholesterol) Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholesterol levels (increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) and have a number of heart healthy effects Omega-3 Primary fish Dark green leafy vegetables Walnuts and flaxseeds Canola oil Omega -6 Corn and soybean oil In addition to heart disease risk, dietary fats from red meat can raise the risk of cancer, especially colon cancer 9 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

10 Types of Fatty Acid 10 Figure 8.3 Types of fatty acids and their possible effects on health (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

11 CarbohydratesAn Ideal Source of Energy The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is to supply energy to body cells. Caloric value: 4 calories/gram There are two main types: Simple (one or two sugar units/molecule) Complex (more than two sugar units/molecule) Recommended levels: grams based on a 2000 calorie intake/day AMDR recommends 45-65% of total daily calories Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, its simplest form 11 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

12 Refined Carbohydrates vs. Whole Grains Whole grains have higher nutritional values compared to refined carbohydrates in the following: fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds Whole grains (unrefined carbs) take longer to chew and digest, resulting in: making people feel full sooner entering the bloodstream more slowly reducing the possibility of overeating slower rise of blood sugar 12 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

13 Glycemic Index and Glycemic Response Glycemic index is a measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels Foods with a high glycemic index cause quick and dramatic rise in blood sugar levels Diets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as increasing caloric intake High fiber foods and unrefined carbohydrates tend to have a lower glycemic index 13 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

14 What Is Fiber? Dietary fiber is the term for nondigestible carbohydrates that are intact in plant sources Functional Fiber is the term for nondigestible carbohydrates has been isolated or synthesized in a lab and then added to food as a supplement. Fiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces, assisting with bowel elimination Types of fiber Soluble (viscous) fiber: slows the bodys absorption of glucose, binding cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestines Insoluble fiber: binds with water, allowing fecal matter to become bulkier and softer Sources of Dietary Fiber All plant food contain fiber; however, fruits, legumes, and oats contain higher amounts RDA for Fiber 38 grams for adult men 25 grams for adult women 14 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

15 VitaminsOrganic Micronutrients Vitamins are organic (carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in body cells. Types of Vitamins: fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) water-soluble (C and the eight B-complex vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid) Sources of Vitamins Vitamins are abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains; they are also added to some processed foods 15 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

16 MineralsInorganic Micronutrients Minerals are inorganic (non-carbon-containing) compounds needed in small amounts for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functions There are about 17 essential minerals: Major minerals (those that the body needs in amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride Essential trace minerals (those needed in small amounts) include: copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc 16 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

17 Water The human body is composed of about 60% water; you can live only a few days without water Water is used in digestion and absorption in food and is the medium for most chemical reactions that take place in the body Recommendations: Women need to drink about 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid per day Men need to drink about 13 cups (3.7 liters) of fluid per day Water is lost every day through urine, feces, sweat, and evaporation. 17 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

18 Other Substances in Food: Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that protect against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to molecules Free radicals are chemically unstable, electron-seeking compounds that can damage cell membranes and mutate genes in its search for electrons Many fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids Antioxidants also fall into a broader category of phytochemicals, substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseases 18 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

19 Nutritional Guidelines: Planning Your Diet Various tools have been created by scientific and government groups to help people design healthy diets The following are considered guidelines to use as a reference: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Adequate Intake (AI) Daily values Dietary Guidelines for Americans ChooseMyPlate (new 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines) DASH 19 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

20 Nutrient Density of 12-ounce Portions of Selected Beverages 20 Note that regular soda is the leading source of both added sugars and calories in the American diet, but it provides few nutrients except sugar. (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

21 MyPlate Food Intake Patterns 21 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

22 The Vegetarian Alternative Types of vegetarian diets Vegans = vegetarian who eats no animal products Lacto-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk and cheese products in the diet Lacto-ovo-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk, cheese products, and eggs in the diet Partial vegetarians, semivegetarians, or pescovegetarians = vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products, small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet 22 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

23 Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups Some populations face special dietary challenges, including: Women lacking nutrient-dense foods, calcium, iron Men needing more fruits, vegetables, grains College students should improve overall quality of food choices Older adults need nutrient-dense foods, fiber, vitamin B-12 Athletes need increased energy and fluid requirements People with special health concerns should discuss this with their physician or dietitian 23 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

24 Nutritional Planning: Making Informed Choices About Food Read food labels Read dietary supplement labels Food additives Foodborne illness pathogens Irradiated foods Environmental contaminants and organic foods 24 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

25 Food Additives Most widely used are sugar, salt, corn syrup, citric acid, baking soda, vegetable colors, mustard, and pepper Concerns about some additives: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes some people to experience episodes of sweating and increased blood pressure Sulfites cause severe reactions in some people Check food labels 25 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

26 Guidelines for Fish Consumption To avoid harmful effects of mercury, guidelines have been set for women who are or who may become pregnant, as well as nursing mothers: Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish Eat up to 12 ounces per week of a variety of fish and shellfish; limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per week Check advisories about locally caught fish; if no information is available, limit to 6 ounces per week Follow the same guidelines for children but in smaller servings To avoid exposure to PCBs in farmed fish, some experts recommend a limit of 8 ounces of farmed salmon per month 26 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

27 A Personal Plan: Applying Nutritional Principles Assessing and changing your diet Staying committed to a healthy diet Try additions and substitutions to bring your current diet closer to your goals Plan ahead for challenging situations 27 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

28 Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.


Download ppt "Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google