Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Chapter Eight"— Presentation transcript:
1Nutrition Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
2Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Essential nutrients are substances the body must get from food, because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needsThere are 45 essential nutrients broken down into six classifications:ProteinsCarbohydratesFatsVitaminsMineralsWater(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.2
3Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Six classes of essential nutrients, three supply energy:Fat = 9 calories per gramProtein = 4 calories per gramCarbohydrate = 4 calories per gramOne kilocalorie represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree centigrade(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
4The Digestive System(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
5Proteins—The Basis of Body Structure Proteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormonesThe building blocks of protein are amino acidsTypes of ProteinComplete (meat sources)Incomplete (plant sources)Adequate daily protein intake for adults is .8 grams per kg of body weightAMDR for protein for adults is 10-35% of total daily caloriesRefer to Table 8.2 for popular foods and theamount of protein(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
6Fats—Essential in Small Amounts Fats, also known as lipids, supply energy, insulate the body, support and cushion organs, absorb fat-soluble vitamins, and add flavor and texture to foodsTypes of fats:SaturatedUnsaturatedMonounsaturatedPolyunsaturatedHydrogenationTrans fatty acidsRecommended intake:Men17 g of linoleic acid and 1.6 g of alpha-linoleic acidWomen12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linoleic acidAMDR for total fat is 20-35% of total calories(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
7The Parts of a Whole Grain Kernel (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
8Trans Fatty AcidsTrans fat is an unsaturated fatty acid produced during the process of hydrogenationHydrogenation is a process in which hydrogen is added to unsaturated fats, turning liquid fats into solidsMany prepared foods use this processIn large amounts, trans fats can lower HDL (good cholesterol) levels and promote the risk of heart diseaseFor heart health, it is important to limit your consumption of both saturated and trans fats by examining ingredients in food products(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
9Fats and HealthMany studies have examined the role of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart diseaseMost Americans consume more saturated fats than trans fats, both of which can raise LDL (low density lipoprotein/bad cholesterol)Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholesterol levels (increase levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) and have a number of heart healthy effectsOmega-3Primary fishDark green leafy vegetablesWalnuts and flaxseedsCanola oilOmega -6Corn and soybean oilIn addition to heart disease risk, dietary fats from red meat can raise the risk of cancer, especially colon cancer(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
10Types of Fatty AcidFigure 8.3 Types of fatty acids and their possible effects on health(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
11Carbohydrates—An Ideal Source of Energy The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is to supply energy to body cells.Caloric value:4 calories/gramThere are two main types:Simple (one or two sugar units/molecule)Complex (more than two sugar units/molecule)Recommended levels:grams based on a 2000 calorie intake/dayAMDR recommends 45-65% of total daily caloriesCarbohydrates are broken down into glucose, its simplest form(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
12Refined Carbohydrates vs. Whole Grains Whole grains have higher nutritional values compared to refined carbohydrates in the following:fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compoundsWhole grains (unrefined carbs) take longer to chew and digest, resulting in:making people feel full soonerentering the bloodstream more slowlyreducing the possibility of overeatingslower rise of blood sugar(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
13Glycemic Index and Glycemic Response Glycemic index is a measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levelsFoods with a high glycemic index cause quick and dramatic rise in blood sugar levelsDiets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease as well as increasing caloric intakeHigh fiber foods and unrefined carbohydrates tend to have a lower glycemic index(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
14What Is Fiber?Dietary fiber is the term for nondigestible carbohydrates that are intact in plant sourcesFunctional Fiber is the term for nondigestible carbohydrates has been isolated or synthesized in a lab and then added to food as a supplement.Fiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces, assisting with bowel eliminationTypes of fiberSoluble (viscous) fiber: slows the body’s absorption of glucose, binding cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestinesInsoluble fiber: binds with water, allowing fecal matter to become bulkier and softerSources of Dietary FiberAll plant food contain fiber; however, fruits, legumes, and oats contain higher amountsRDA for Fiber38 grams for adult men25 grams for adult women(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
15Vitamins—Organic Micronutrients Vitamins are organic (carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts to help promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in body cells.Types of Vitamins:fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K)water-soluble (C and the eight B-complex vitamins: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, folate, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid)Sources of VitaminsVitamins are abundant in fruits, vegetables, and grains; they are also added to some processed foods(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
16Minerals—Inorganic Micronutrients Minerals are inorganic (non-carbon-containing) compounds needed in small amounts for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues and functionsThere are about 17 essential minerals:Major minerals (those that the body needs in amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include:calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chlorideEssential trace minerals (those needed in small amounts) include:copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
17WaterThe human body is composed of about 60% water; you can live only a few days without waterWater is used in digestion and absorption in food and is the medium for most chemical reactions that take place in the bodyRecommendations:Women need to drink about 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid per dayMen need to drink about 13 cups (3.7 liters) of fluid per dayWater is lost every day through urine, feces, sweat, and evaporation.(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
18Other Substances in Food: Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that protect against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to moleculesFree radicals are chemically unstable, electron-seeking compounds that can damage cell membranes and mutate genes in its search for electronsMany fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoidsAntioxidants also fall into a broader category of phytochemicals, substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseases(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
19Nutritional Guidelines: Planning Your Diet Various tools have been created by scientific and government groups to help people design healthy dietsThe following are considered guidelines to use as a reference:Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)Adequate Intake (AI)Daily valuesDietary Guidelines for AmericansChooseMyPlate (new 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines)DASH(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
20Nutrient Density of 12-ounce Portions of Selected Beverages Note that regular soda is the leading source of both added sugars and calories in the American diet, but it provides few nutrients except sugar.(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
21MyPlate Food Intake Patterns (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
22The Vegetarian Alternative Types of vegetarian dietsVegans = vegetarian who eats no animal productsLacto-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk and cheese products in the dietLacto-ovo-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk, cheese products, and eggs in the dietPartial vegetarians, semivegetarians, or pescovegetarians = vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products, small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
23Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups Some populations face special dietary challenges, including:Women lacking nutrient-dense foods, calcium, ironMen needing more fruits, vegetables, grainsCollege students should improve overall quality of food choicesOlder adults need nutrient-dense foods, fiber, vitamin B-12Athletes need increased energy and fluid requirementsPeople with special health concerns should discuss this with their physician or dietitian(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
24Nutritional Planning: Making Informed Choices About Food Read food labelsRead dietary supplement labelsFood additivesFoodborne illnesspathogensIrradiated foodsEnvironmental contaminants and organic foods(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
25Food AdditivesMost widely used are sugar, salt, corn syrup, citric acid, baking soda, vegetable colors, mustard, and pepperConcerns about some additives:Monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes some people to experience episodes of sweating and increased blood pressureSulfites cause severe reactions in some peopleCheck food labels(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
26Guidelines for Fish Consumption To avoid harmful effects of mercury, guidelines have been set for women who are or who may become pregnant, as well as nursing mothers:Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefishEat up to 12 ounces per week of a variety of fish and shellfish; limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per weekCheck advisories about locally caught fish; if no information is available, limit to 6 ounces per weekFollow the same guidelines for children but in smaller servingsTo avoid exposure to PCBs in farmed fish, some experts recommend a limit of 8 ounces of farmed salmon per month(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.26
27A Personal Plan: Applying Nutritional Principles Assessing and changing your dietStaying committed to a healthy dietTry additions and substitutions to bring your current diet closer to your goalsPlan ahead for challenging situations(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
28Nutrition Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.28