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Chapter 8 Pgs. 223 - 272 Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Pgs. 223 - 272 Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Pgs Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath

2  List the six essential nutrients and describe their functions in the body.  List the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges.  Explain the difference between the following:  i. Complete and incomplete proteins  ii. Saturated, unsaturated, and trans fat  iii. Simple and complex carbohydrates  iv. Soluble and insoluble fiber  Explain the role of fiber and antioxidants in the body.

3  The taking in and utilization of nutrients  Involves three steps  Consumption (Eat Slow-it takes 20 minutes for your body to recognize you are full)  Metabolism (Everybody is different)  Utilization (We have control over this through Metabolic Rate)  Essential Nutrients: 6 classes  Macronutrients carbohydrates, protein, & fat  Micronutrients vitamins & minerals  Water

4  Essential Nutrients are substances the body must get from food, because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs  There are 45 essential nutrients broken down into six classifications: (Table 8.1 Functions of)  Proteins  Carbohydrates  Fats  Vitamins  Minerals  Water 4 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

5  One kilocalorie represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one liter of water 1 degree C.  1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories  In common usage, people refer to kilocalories as calories. Calorie is also used on food labels.  A person needs about 2000 kilocalories a day to meet his or her energy needs.  Calories consumed in excess of energy needs can be converted to fat and stored in the body

6  Carbohydrates  4 Calories per gram  Proteins  4 Calories per gram  Fats  9 Calories per gram  Digested along different sections of the gastrointestinal tract

7  HCl and gastric lipase really start to break down macronutrients in the stomach  Most digestion occurs in the small intestine

8  Protein = 10-35% of daily calories  Carbohydrates = 45-65% of daily calories  Fat = 20 – 35%, 10% saturated, of daily calories

9  Key to building body’s structural components  Muscles, bones, blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones  Compound of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen  Composed of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential

10  Complete vs. Incomplete  Complete = foods that supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy  Incomplete = foods that supply most but not all essential amino acids Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts  Complementary  Two or more incompletes that together supply all the essential amino acids

11  Recommended Intake  0.8 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight daily to prevent deficiencies  Endurance athletes = 1.2 – 1.4 g/kg  Resistance and strength-training athletes = 1.2 – 1.7 g/kg  AMDR  10–35% of total daily calories

12  Sources  The following foods provide about the same amount of protein as 1oz (7g) of meat ¾ c yogurt ½ c cooked legumes ¼ c cottage cheese 2 Tbsp peanut butter ¼ c soy beans ¼ c tofu 1 c regular or soy milk 1 egg 1 oz cheese 1/3 c mixed nuts

13  Also known as lipids  Supply energy, provide insulation, and support and cushion organs  Absorb fat-soluble vitamins  Types of fats:  Saturated  Unsaturated Monounsaturated Single double bond Polyunsaturated Multiple double bonds  Trans fat


15  Recommended intake:  Men 17 g of linoleic acid and 1.6 g of alpha-linoleic acid  Women 12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linoleic acid  AMDR  For total fat is 20-35% of total calories

16  Formed during the hydrogenation process to solidify liquid fats  One hydrogen is added on each side of the double bond, as opposed to cis-fatty acids, where two hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond Allows more fats to be packed closer together oils.htm

17  Provide stability, shelf life, plasticity to foods  Elevates levels of LDL (low-density lipoproteins, “bad cholesterol”) and lowers levels of HDL (high-density lipoproteins, “healthy cholesterol”)  Together, increases risk for coronary heart disease

18  Studies have examined the role of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease  Most Americans consume more saturated fats than trans fats, both of which can raise LDL (low density lipoprotein/bad cholesterol)  Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholesterol levels and have a number of heart healthy effects  Omega-3 Primary fish Dark green leafy vegetables Walnuts and flaxseeds Canola oil  Omega -6 Corn and soybean oil  In addition to heart disease risk, dietary fats from red meat can raise the risk of cancer, especially colon cancer

19 and-omega-6-fatty-acids/


21  The body’s preferred source of energy  Two types:  Simple (one or two sugar units/molecule)  Complex (more than two sugar units/molecule)  Recommended levels: grams based on a 2000 calorie intake/day AMDR recommends 45-65% of total daily calories  Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, its simplest form

22  Refined vs. Whole Grain  Whole grains have higher nutritional values compared to refined carbohydrates in the following: Fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds  Whole grains (unrefined carbs) take longer to chew and digest, resulting in:  Making people feel full sooner  Entering the bloodstream more slowly  Reducing the possibility of overeating  Slower rise of blood sugar

23  A measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels  Foods with a high glycemic index cause quick and dramatic rise in blood sugar levels  Diets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease, as well as increasing caloric intake  High fiber foods and unrefined carbohydrates tend to have a lower glycemic index

24  Indigestible carbohydrates that are intact in plant sources  Fiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces, assisting with bowel elimination  Types of fiber  Soluble fiber: slows the body’s absorption of glucose, binding cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestines  Insoluble fiber: binds with water, allowing fecal matter to become bulkier and softer  Sources of Dietary Fiber  All plant foods contain fiber; however, fruits, legumes, and oats contain higher amounts  RDA for Fiber  38 grams for adult men  25 grams for adult women

25  Proteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones  The building blocks of protein are amino acids  Types of Protein  Complete (meat sources)  Incomplete (plant sources)  Adequate daily protein intake for adults is.8 grams per kg of body weight  AMDR for protein for adults is 10-35% of total daily calories 25 Refer to Table 8.2 for popular foods and the amount of protein (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

26  Needed in much smaller amounts  Vitamins are organic (carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts.  Promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body  Fat-soluble: A, D, E, and K  Water-soluble: C and B-vitamin complex  Thiamin (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin (B 3 ), pantothenic acid (B 5 ), pyridoxine (B 6 ), biotin (B 7 ), folate (B 9 ), cyanocobalamin (B 12 )

27  Minerals  Inorganic (do not contain carbon) compounds needed for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues  There are about 17 essential minerals:  Major minerals (those needed in amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride  Trace minerals (those needed in small amounts) include: Copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc

28  The human body is composed of about 60% water; you can live only a few days without water  Water is used in digestion and absorption in food and is the medium for most chemical reactions that take place in the body  Recommendations:  Women need to drink about 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid per day  Men need to drink about 13 cups (3.7 liters) of fluid per day  Water is lost every day through urine, feces, sweat, and evaporation

29  Antioxidants are substances that protect against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to molecules  Free radicals are chemically unstable, electron-seeking compounds that can damage cell membranes and mutate genes in its search for electrons  Many fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids  Antioxidants also fall into a broader category of phytochemicals, substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseases bright colored fruits and vegetables 29 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

30  Plant chemicals that protect against disease and have health-enhancing benefits  Examples:  Anthocyanosides: red, purple, and blue  Carotenoids: orange, red, and yellow  Flavonoids: citrus, onions, apples, grapes, wine, tea  Lignans: flaxseed, berries, whole grains, licorice  Resveratrol: grapes and wine

31  Various tools have been created by scientific and government groups to help people design healthy diets  The following are considered guidelines to use as a reference:  Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Adequate Intake (AI)  Daily values  Dietary Guidelines for Americans  ChooseMyPlate (new 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines)  DASH 31 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

32 32 Note: that regular soda is the leading source of both added sugars and calories in the American diet, but it provides few nutrients except sugar. (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

33 33 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

34  Types of vegetarian diets  Vegans = vegetarian who eats no animal products  Lacto-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk and cheese products in the diet  Lacto-ovo-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk, cheese products, and eggs in the diet  Partial vegetarians, semivegetarians, or pescovegetarians = vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products, small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet 34 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

35  Some populations face special dietary challenges, including:  Women lacking nutrient-dense foods, calcium, iron  Men needing more fruits, vegetables, grains  College students should improve overall quality of food choices  Older adults need nutrient-dense foods, fiber, vitamin B-12  Athletes need increased energy and fluid requirements  People with special health concerns should discuss this with their physician or dietitian 35 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

36  Read food labels  Read dietary supplement labels  Food additives  Foodborne illness  pathogens  Irradiated foods  Environmental contaminants and organic foods 36 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

37  Most widely used are sugar, salt, corn syrup, citric acid, baking soda, vegetable colors, mustard, and pepper  Concerns about some additives:  Monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes some people to experience episodes of sweating and increased blood pressure  Sulfites cause severe reactions in some people  Check food labels 37 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

38  To avoid harmful effects of mercury, guidelines have been set for women who are or who may become pregnant, as well as nursing mothers:  Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish  Eat up to 12 ounces per week of a variety of fish and shellfish; limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per week  Check advisories about locally caught fish; if no information is available, limit to 6 ounces per week  Follow the same guidelines for children but in smaller servings  To avoid exposure to PCBs in farmed fish, some experts recommend a limit of 8 ounces of farmed salmon per month 38 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

39  Assessing and changing your diet  Staying committed to a healthy diet  Try additions and substitutions to bring your current diet closer to your goals  Plan ahead for challenging situations 39 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

40 Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

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