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Chapter 8 Pgs Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath

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1 Chapter 8 Pgs. 223 - 272 Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath
Nutrition I Chapter 8 Pgs Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath

2 Objectives List the six essential nutrients and describe their functions in the body. List the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Explain the difference between the following: i. Complete and incomplete proteins ii. Saturated, unsaturated, and trans fat iii. Simple and complex carbohydrates iv. Soluble and insoluble fiber Explain the role of fiber and antioxidants in the body.

3 What is nutrition? Pg. 224 The taking in and utilization of nutrients
Involves three steps Consumption (Eat Slow-it takes 20 minutes for your body to recognize you are full) Metabolism (Everybody is different) Utilization (We have control over this through Metabolic Rate) Essential Nutrients: 6 classes Macronutrients carbohydrates, protein, & fat Micronutrients vitamins & minerals Water

4 Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Pg. 224
Essential Nutrients are substances the body must get from food, because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs There are 45 essential nutrients broken down into six classifications: (Table 8.1 Functions of) Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Water (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 4

5 Calories: Energy in food is expressed as Kilocalories Pgs. 224 - 225
One kilocalorie represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one liter of water 1 degree C. 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories In common usage, people refer to kilocalories as calories. Calorie is also used on food labels. A person needs about 2000 kilocalories a day to meet his or her energy needs. Calories consumed in excess of energy needs can be converted to fat and stored in the body

6 Macronutrients Of the Six these supply Energy! Pg. 224
Carbohydrates 4 Calories per gram Proteins Fats 9 Calories per gram Digested along different sections of the gastrointestinal tract Alcohol 7 Calories per gram

7 GI Tract pg. 226 HCl and gastric lipase really start to break down macronutrients in the stomach Most digestion occurs in the small intestine

8 What should my diet look like?
Protein = 10-35% of daily calories Carbohydrates = % of daily calories Fat = 20 – 35%, 10% saturated, of daily calories

9 Protein Pgs. 225 - 226 Key to building body’s structural components
Muscles, bones, blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones Compound of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen Composed of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential Essential amino acids = histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine

10 Protein Pg. 226 Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts
Complete vs. Incomplete Complete = foods that supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy Incomplete = foods that supply most but not all essential amino acids Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts Complementary Two or more incompletes that together supply all the essential amino acids Legumes w/ rice, corn, or wheat = lysine and isoleucine Sesame seeds or mushrooms w/ broccoli or green beans = isoleucine and methionine

11 Protein Pg. 226 Recommended Intake AMDR
0.8 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight daily to prevent deficiencies Endurance athletes = 1.2 – 1.4 g/kg Resistance and strength-training athletes = 1.2 – 1.7 g/kg AMDR 10–35% of total daily calories

12 Protein pgs Sources The following foods provide about the same amount of protein as 1oz (7g) of meat ¾ c yogurt ½ c cooked legumes ¼ c cottage cheese 2 Tbsp peanut butter ¼ c soy beans ¼ c tofu 1 c regular or soy milk 1 egg 1 oz cheese 1/3 c mixed nuts

13 Fats Pgs. 227 - 229 Also known as lipids
Supply energy, provide insulation, and support and cushion organs Absorb fat-soluble vitamins Types of fats: Saturated Unsaturated Monounsaturated Single double bond Polyunsaturated Multiple double bonds Trans fat

14 Fatty acid molecule

15 Fats Pg. 228 Recommended intake: AMDR Men Women
17 g of linoleic acid and 1.6 g of alpha-linoleic acid Women 12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linoleic acid AMDR For total fat is 20-35% of total calories

16 Trans fat pgs Formed during the hydrogenation process to solidify liquid fats One hydrogen is added on each side of the double bond, as opposed to cis-fatty acids, where two hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond Allows more fats to be packed closer together

17 Trans fat pgs Provide stability, shelf life, plasticity to foods Elevates levels of LDL (low-density lipoproteins, “bad cholesterol”) and lowers levels of HDL (high-density lipoproteins, “healthy cholesterol”) Together, increases risk for coronary heart disease

18 Fats & health pg. 228 Studies have examined the role of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease Most Americans consume more saturated fats than trans fats, both of which can raise LDL (low density lipoprotein/bad cholesterol) Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholesterol levels and have a number of heart healthy effects Omega-3 Primary fish Dark green leafy vegetables Walnuts and flaxseeds Canola oil Omega -6 Corn and soybean oil In addition to heart disease risk, dietary fats from red meat can raise the risk of cancer, especially colon cancer

19 Omega-3 fatty acids


21 Carbohydrates pgs. 230 - 232 The body’s preferred source of energy
Two types: Simple (one or two sugar units/molecule) Complex (more than two sugar units/molecule) Recommended levels: grams based on a 2000 calorie intake/day AMDR recommends 45-65% of total daily calories Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, its simplest form Central nervous system depends on glucose for functioning RDA for fiber 38g for men, 25g for women

22 Carbohydrates pg. 231 Refined vs. Whole Grain
Whole grains have higher nutritional values compared to refined carbohydrates in the following: Fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds Whole grains (unrefined carbs) take longer to chew and digest, resulting in: Making people feel full sooner Entering the bloodstream more slowly Reducing the possibility of overeating Slower rise of blood sugar

23 Glycemic Index Pgs A measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels Foods with a high glycemic index cause quick and dramatic rise in blood sugar levels Diets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease, as well as increasing caloric intake High fiber foods and unrefined carbohydrates tend to have a lower glycemic index

24 Fiber Pgs Indigestible carbohydrates that are intact in plant sources Fiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces, assisting with bowel elimination Types of fiber Soluble fiber: slows the body’s absorption of glucose, binding cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestines Insoluble fiber: binds with water, allowing fecal matter to become bulkier and softer Sources of Dietary Fiber All plant foods contain fiber; however, fruits, legumes, and oats contain higher amounts RDA for Fiber 38 grams for adult men 25 grams for adult women

25 Proteins—The Basis of Body Structure Pgs. 225 - 226
Proteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones The building blocks of protein are amino acids Types of Protein Complete (meat sources) Incomplete (plant sources) Adequate daily protein intake for adults is .8 grams per kg of body weight AMDR for protein for adults is 10-35% of total daily calories Refer to Table 8.2 for popular foods and the amount of protein (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

26 Micronutrients pgs. 223 - 235 Needed in much smaller amounts
Vitamins are organic (carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts. Promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body Fat-soluble: A, D, E, and K Water-soluble: C and B-vitamin complex Thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), folate (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12)

27 Micronutrients pgs. 235 - 236 Minerals
Inorganic (do not contain carbon) compounds needed for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues There are about 17 essential minerals: Major minerals (those needed in amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride Trace minerals (those needed in small amounts) include: Copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc

28 Water pgs The human body is composed of about 60% water; you can live only a few days without water Water is used in digestion and absorption in food and is the medium for most chemical reactions that take place in the body Recommendations: Women need to drink about 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid per day Men need to drink about 13 cups (3.7 liters) of fluid per day Water is lost every day through urine, feces, sweat, and evaporation

29 Other Substances in Food: Antioxidants pgs. 237 - 238
Antioxidants are substances that protect against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to molecules Free radicals are chemically unstable, electron-seeking compounds that can damage cell membranes and mutate genes in its search for electrons Many fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids Antioxidants also fall into a broader category of phytochemicals, substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseases bright colored fruits and vegetables (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

30 Phytochemicals pg. 238 Plant chemicals that protect against disease and have health-enhancing benefits Examples: Anthocyanosides: red, purple, and blue Carotenoids: orange, red, and yellow Flavonoids: citrus, onions, apples, grapes, wine, tea Lignans: flaxseed, berries, whole grains, licorice Resveratrol: grapes and wine

31 Nutritional Guidelines: Planning Your Diet pgs. 238 - 240
Various tools have been created by scientific and government groups to help people design healthy diets The following are considered guidelines to use as a reference: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Adequate Intake (AI) Daily values Dietary Guidelines for Americans ChooseMyPlate (new 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines) DASH (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

32 Nutrient Density of 12-ounce Portions of Selected Beverages pg. 241
Note: that regular soda is the leading source of both added sugars and calories in the American diet, but it provides few nutrients except sugar. (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

33 My-Plate Food Intake Patterns pg. 244
(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

34 The Vegetarian Alternative pgs. 247 - 248
Types of vegetarian diets Vegans = vegetarian who eats no animal products Lacto-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk and cheese products in the diet Lacto-ovo-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk, cheese products, and eggs in the diet Partial vegetarians, semivegetarians, or pescovegetarians = vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products, small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

35 Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups pgs. 248 - 250
Some populations face special dietary challenges, including: Women lacking nutrient-dense foods, calcium, iron Men needing more fruits, vegetables, grains College students should improve overall quality of food choices Older adults need nutrient-dense foods, fiber, vitamin B-12 Athletes need increased energy and fluid requirements People with special health concerns should discuss this with their physician or dietitian (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

36 Nutritional Planning: Making Informed Choices About Food pgs. 252 - 254
Read food labels Read dietary supplement labels Food additives Foodborne illness pathogens Irradiated foods Environmental contaminants and organic foods (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

37 Food Additives pg. 252 Most widely used are sugar, salt, corn syrup, citric acid, baking soda, vegetable colors, mustard, and pepper Concerns about some additives: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes some people to experience episodes of sweating and increased blood pressure Sulfites cause severe reactions in some people Check food labels (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

38 Guidelines for Fish Consumption pgs. 256 - 258
To avoid harmful effects of mercury, guidelines have been set for women who are or who may become pregnant, as well as nursing mothers: Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish Eat up to 12 ounces per week of a variety of fish and shellfish; limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per week Check advisories about locally caught fish; if no information is available, limit to 6 ounces per week Follow the same guidelines for children but in smaller servings To avoid exposure to PCBs in farmed fish, some experts recommend a limit of 8 ounces of farmed salmon per month (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 38

39 A Personal Plan: Applying Nutritional Principles pg. 258
Assessing and changing your diet Staying committed to a healthy diet Try additions and substitutions to bring your current diet closer to your goals Plan ahead for challenging situations (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.

40 Nutrition Chapter Eight
(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 40

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