Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Pgs Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 8 Pgs. 223 - 272 Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath Nutrition IChapter 8PgsMrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath
2ObjectivesList the six essential nutrients and describe their functions in the body.List the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges.Explain the difference between the following:i. Complete and incomplete proteinsii. Saturated, unsaturated, and trans fatiii. Simple and complex carbohydratesiv. Soluble and insoluble fiberExplain the role of fiber and antioxidants in the body.
3What is nutrition? Pg. 224 The taking in and utilization of nutrients Involves three stepsConsumption (Eat Slow-it takes 20 minutes for your body to recognize you are full)Metabolism (Everybody is different)Utilization (We have control over this through Metabolic Rate)Essential Nutrients: 6 classesMacronutrientscarbohydrates, protein, & fatMicronutrientsvitamins & mineralsWater
4Nutritional Requirements: Components of a Healthy Diet Pg. 224 Essential Nutrients are substances the body must get from food, because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needsThere are 45 essential nutrients broken down into six classifications: (Table 8.1 Functions of)ProteinsCarbohydratesFatsVitaminsMineralsWater(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.4
5Calories: Energy in food is expressed as Kilocalories Pgs. 224 - 225 One kilocalorie represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one liter of water 1 degree C.1 kilocalorie = 1000 caloriesIn common usage, people refer to kilocalories as calories. Calorie is also used on food labels.A person needs about 2000 kilocalories a day to meet his or her energy needs.Calories consumed in excess of energy needs can be converted to fat and stored in the body
6Macronutrients Of the Six these supply Energy! Pg. 224 Carbohydrates4 Calories per gramProteinsFats9 Calories per gramDigested along different sections of the gastrointestinal tractAlcohol7 Calories per gram
7GI Tract pg. 226HCl and gastric lipase really start to break down macronutrients in the stomachMost digestion occurs in the small intestine
8What should my diet look like? Protein = 10-35% of daily caloriesCarbohydrates = % of daily caloriesFat = 20 – 35%, 10% saturated, of daily calories
9Protein Pgs. 225 - 226 Key to building body’s structural components Muscles, bones, blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormonesCompound of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygenComposed of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essentialEssential amino acids = histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine
10Protein Pg. 226 Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts Complete vs. IncompleteComplete = foods that supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amountsMeat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soyIncomplete = foods that supply most but not all essential amino acidsPlants, including legumes, grains, and nutsComplementaryTwo or more incompletes that together supply all the essential amino acidsLegumes w/ rice, corn, or wheat = lysine and isoleucineSesame seeds or mushrooms w/ broccoli or green beans = isoleucine and methionine
11Protein Pg. 226 Recommended Intake AMDR 0.8 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight daily to prevent deficienciesEndurance athletes = 1.2 – 1.4 g/kgResistance and strength-training athletes = 1.2 – 1.7 g/kgAMDR10–35% of total dailycalories
12Protein pgsSourcesThe following foods provide about the same amount of protein as 1oz (7g) of meat¾ c yogurt½ c cooked legumes¼ c cottage cheese2 Tbsp peanut butter¼ c soy beans¼ c tofu1 c regular or soy milk1 egg1 oz cheese1/3 c mixed nuts
13Fats Pgs. 227 - 229 Also known as lipids Supply energy, provide insulation, and support and cushion organsAbsorb fat-soluble vitaminsTypes of fats:SaturatedUnsaturatedMonounsaturatedSingle double bondPolyunsaturatedMultiple double bondsTrans fat
15Fats Pg. 228 Recommended intake: AMDR Men Women 17 g of linoleic acid and 1.6 g of alpha-linoleic acidWomen12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linoleic acidAMDRFor total fat is 20-35% of total calories
16Trans fat pgsFormed during the hydrogenation process to solidify liquid fatsOne hydrogen is added on each side of the double bond, as opposed to cis-fatty acids, where two hydrogens are on the same side of the double bondAllows more fats to be packed closer together
17Trans fat pgsProvide stability, shelf life, plasticity to foodsElevates levels of LDL (low-density lipoproteins, “bad cholesterol”) and lowers levels of HDL (high-density lipoproteins, “healthy cholesterol”)Together, increases risk for coronary heart disease
18Fats & health pg. 228Studies have examined the role of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart diseaseMost Americans consume more saturated fats than trans fats, both of which can raise LDL (low density lipoprotein/bad cholesterol)Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholesterol levels and have a number of heart healthy effectsOmega-3Primary fishDark green leafy vegetablesWalnuts and flaxseedsCanola oilOmega -6Corn and soybean oilIn addition to heart disease risk, dietary fats from red meat can raise the risk of cancer, especially colon cancer
21Carbohydrates pgs. 230 - 232 The body’s preferred source of energy Two types:Simple (one or two sugar units/molecule)Complex (more than two sugar units/molecule)Recommended levels:grams based on a 2000 calorie intake/dayAMDR recommends 45-65% of total daily caloriesCarbohydrates are broken down into glucose, its simplest formCentral nervous system depends on glucose for functioningRDA for fiber38g for men, 25g for women
22Carbohydrates pg. 231 Refined vs. Whole Grain Whole grains have higher nutritional values compared to refined carbohydrates in the following:Fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compoundsWhole grains (unrefined carbs) take longer to chew and digest, resulting in:Making people feel full soonerEntering the bloodstream more slowlyReducing the possibility of overeatingSlower rise of blood sugar
23Glycemic Index PgsA measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levelsFoods with a high glycemic index cause quick and dramatic rise in blood sugar levelsDiets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease, as well as increasing caloric intakeHigh fiber foods and unrefined carbohydrates tend to have a lower glycemic index
24Fiber PgsIndigestible carbohydrates that are intact in plant sourcesFiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces, assisting with bowel eliminationTypes of fiberSoluble fiber: slows the body’s absorption of glucose, binding cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestinesInsoluble fiber: binds with water, allowing fecal matter to become bulkier and softerSources of Dietary FiberAll plant foods contain fiber; however, fruits, legumes, and oats contain higher amountsRDA for Fiber38 grams for adult men25 grams for adult women
25Proteins—The Basis of Body Structure Pgs. 225 - 226 Proteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormonesThe building blocks of protein are amino acidsTypes of ProteinComplete (meat sources)Incomplete (plant sources)Adequate daily protein intake for adults is .8 grams per kg of body weightAMDR for protein for adults is 10-35% of total daily caloriesRefer to Table 8.2 for popular foods and theamount of protein(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
26Micronutrients pgs. 223 - 235 Needed in much smaller amounts Vitamins are organic (carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts.Promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the bodyFat-soluble: A, D, E, and KWater-soluble: C and B-vitamin complexThiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), folate (B9), cyanocobalamin (B12)
27Micronutrients pgs. 235 - 236 Minerals Inorganic (do not contain carbon) compounds needed for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissuesThere are about 17 essential minerals:Major minerals (those needed in amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include:Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chlorideTrace minerals (those needed in small amounts) include:Copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc
28Water pgsThe human body is composed of about 60% water; you can live only a few days without waterWater is used in digestion and absorption in food and is the medium for most chemical reactions that take place in the bodyRecommendations:Women need to drink about 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid per dayMen need to drink about 13 cups (3.7 liters) of fluid per dayWater is lost every day through urine, feces, sweat, and evaporation
29Other Substances in Food: Antioxidants pgs. 237 - 238 Antioxidants are substances that protect against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to moleculesFree radicals are chemically unstable, electron-seeking compounds that can damage cell membranes and mutate genes in its search for electronsMany fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoidsAntioxidants also fall into a broader category of phytochemicals, substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseasesbright colored fruits and vegetables(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
30Phytochemicals pg. 238Plant chemicals that protect against disease and have health-enhancing benefitsExamples:Anthocyanosides: red, purple, and blueCarotenoids: orange, red, and yellowFlavonoids: citrus, onions, apples, grapes, wine, teaLignans: flaxseed, berries, whole grains, licoriceResveratrol: grapes and wine
31Nutritional Guidelines: Planning Your Diet pgs. 238 - 240 Various tools have been created by scientific and government groups to help people design healthy dietsThe following are considered guidelines to use as a reference:Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)Adequate Intake (AI)Daily valuesDietary Guidelines for AmericansChooseMyPlate (new 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines)DASH(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
32Nutrient Density of 12-ounce Portions of Selected Beverages pg. 241 Note: that regular soda is the leading source of both added sugars and calories in the American diet, but it provides few nutrients except sugar.(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
33My-Plate Food Intake Patterns pg. 244 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
34The Vegetarian Alternative pgs. 247 - 248 Types of vegetarian dietsVegans = vegetarian who eats no animal productsLacto-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk and cheese products in the dietLacto-ovo-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk, cheese products, and eggs in the dietPartial vegetarians, semivegetarians, or pescovegetarians = vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products, small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
35Dietary Challenges for Special Population Groups pgs. 248 - 250 Some populations face special dietary challenges, including:Women lacking nutrient-dense foods, calcium, ironMen needing more fruits, vegetables, grainsCollege students should improve overall quality of food choicesOlder adults need nutrient-dense foods, fiber, vitamin B-12Athletes need increased energy and fluid requirementsPeople with special health concerns should discuss this with their physician or dietitian(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
36Nutritional Planning: Making Informed Choices About Food pgs. 252 - 254 Read food labelsRead dietary supplement labelsFood additivesFoodborne illnesspathogensIrradiated foodsEnvironmental contaminants and organic foods(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
37Food Additives pg. 252Most widely used are sugar, salt, corn syrup, citric acid, baking soda, vegetable colors, mustard, and pepperConcerns about some additives:Monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes some people to experience episodes of sweating and increased blood pressureSulfites cause severe reactions in some peopleCheck food labels(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
38Guidelines for Fish Consumption pgs. 256 - 258 To avoid harmful effects of mercury, guidelines have been set for women who are or who may become pregnant, as well as nursing mothers:Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefishEat up to 12 ounces per week of a variety of fish and shellfish; limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per weekCheck advisories about locally caught fish; if no information is available, limit to 6 ounces per weekFollow the same guidelines for children but in smaller servingsTo avoid exposure to PCBs in farmed fish, some experts recommend a limit of 8 ounces of farmed salmon per month(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.38
39A Personal Plan: Applying Nutritional Principles pg. 258 Assessing and changing your dietStaying committed to a healthy dietTry additions and substitutions to bring your current diet closer to your goalsPlan ahead for challenging situations(c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
40Nutrition Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.40