Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Pgs. 223 - 272 Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 8 Pgs Mrs. Wheeler / Mr. Rath
List the six essential nutrients and describe their functions in the body. List the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. Explain the difference between the following: i. Complete and incomplete proteins ii. Saturated, unsaturated, and trans fat iii. Simple and complex carbohydrates iv. Soluble and insoluble fiber Explain the role of fiber and antioxidants in the body.
The taking in and utilization of nutrients Involves three steps Consumption (Eat Slow-it takes 20 minutes for your body to recognize you are full) Metabolism (Everybody is different) Utilization (We have control over this through Metabolic Rate) Essential Nutrients: 6 classes Macronutrients carbohydrates, protein, & fat Micronutrients vitamins & minerals Water
Essential Nutrients are substances the body must get from food, because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs There are 45 essential nutrients broken down into six classifications: (Table 8.1 Functions of) Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Water 4 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
One kilocalorie represents the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of one liter of water 1 degree C. 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories In common usage, people refer to kilocalories as calories. Calorie is also used on food labels. A person needs about 2000 kilocalories a day to meet his or her energy needs. Calories consumed in excess of energy needs can be converted to fat and stored in the body
Carbohydrates 4 Calories per gram Proteins 4 Calories per gram Fats 9 Calories per gram Digested along different sections of the gastrointestinal tract
HCl and gastric lipase really start to break down macronutrients in the stomach Most digestion occurs in the small intestine
Protein = 10-35% of daily calories Carbohydrates = 45-65% of daily calories Fat = 20 – 35%, 10% saturated, of daily calories
Key to building body’s structural components Muscles, bones, blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones Compound of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen Composed of 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential
Complete vs. Incomplete Complete = foods that supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy Incomplete = foods that supply most but not all essential amino acids Plants, including legumes, grains, and nuts Complementary Two or more incompletes that together supply all the essential amino acids
Recommended Intake 0.8 gram per kilogram (0.36 gram per pound) of body weight daily to prevent deficiencies Endurance athletes = 1.2 – 1.4 g/kg Resistance and strength-training athletes = 1.2 – 1.7 g/kg AMDR 10–35% of total daily calories
Sources The following foods provide about the same amount of protein as 1oz (7g) of meat ¾ c yogurt ½ c cooked legumes ¼ c cottage cheese 2 Tbsp peanut butter ¼ c soy beans ¼ c tofu 1 c regular or soy milk 1 egg 1 oz cheese 1/3 c mixed nuts
Also known as lipids Supply energy, provide insulation, and support and cushion organs Absorb fat-soluble vitamins Types of fats: Saturated Unsaturated Monounsaturated Single double bond Polyunsaturated Multiple double bonds Trans fat
Recommended intake: Men 17 g of linoleic acid and 1.6 g of alpha-linoleic acid Women 12 g of linoleic acid and 1.1 g of alpha-linoleic acid AMDR For total fat is 20-35% of total calories
Formed during the hydrogenation process to solidify liquid fats One hydrogen is added on each side of the double bond, as opposed to cis-fatty acids, where two hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond Allows more fats to be packed closer together oils.htm
Provide stability, shelf life, plasticity to foods Elevates levels of LDL (low-density lipoproteins, “bad cholesterol”) and lowers levels of HDL (high-density lipoproteins, “healthy cholesterol”) Together, increases risk for coronary heart disease
Studies have examined the role of dietary fats on blood cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease Most Americans consume more saturated fats than trans fats, both of which can raise LDL (low density lipoprotein/bad cholesterol) Monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cholesterol levels and have a number of heart healthy effects Omega-3 Primary fish Dark green leafy vegetables Walnuts and flaxseeds Canola oil Omega -6 Corn and soybean oil In addition to heart disease risk, dietary fats from red meat can raise the risk of cancer, especially colon cancer
The body’s preferred source of energy Two types: Simple (one or two sugar units/molecule) Complex (more than two sugar units/molecule) Recommended levels: grams based on a 2000 calorie intake/day AMDR recommends 45-65% of total daily calories Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, its simplest form
Refined vs. Whole Grain Whole grains have higher nutritional values compared to refined carbohydrates in the following: Fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial compounds Whole grains (unrefined carbs) take longer to chew and digest, resulting in: Making people feel full sooner Entering the bloodstream more slowly Reducing the possibility of overeating Slower rise of blood sugar
A measure of how the ingestion of a particular food affects blood glucose levels Foods with a high glycemic index cause quick and dramatic rise in blood sugar levels Diets rich in high glycemic index foods are linked to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease, as well as increasing caloric intake High fiber foods and unrefined carbohydrates tend to have a lower glycemic index
Indigestible carbohydrates that are intact in plant sources Fiber passes through the intestinal tract and provides bulk for feces, assisting with bowel elimination Types of fiber Soluble fiber: slows the body’s absorption of glucose, binding cholesterol-containing compounds in the intestines Insoluble fiber: binds with water, allowing fecal matter to become bulkier and softer Sources of Dietary Fiber All plant foods contain fiber; however, fruits, legumes, and oats contain higher amounts RDA for Fiber 38 grams for adult men 25 grams for adult women
Proteins form key parts of the body’s main structural components—muscles and bones—and of blood, enzymes, cell membranes, and some hormones The building blocks of protein are amino acids Types of Protein Complete (meat sources) Incomplete (plant sources) Adequate daily protein intake for adults is.8 grams per kg of body weight AMDR for protein for adults is 10-35% of total daily calories 25 Refer to Table 8.2 for popular foods and the amount of protein (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Needed in much smaller amounts Vitamins are organic (carbon-containing) substances needed in small amounts. Promote and regulate chemical reactions and processes in the body Fat-soluble: A, D, E, and K Water-soluble: C and B-vitamin complex Thiamin (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin (B 3 ), pantothenic acid (B 5 ), pyridoxine (B 6 ), biotin (B 7 ), folate (B 9 ), cyanocobalamin (B 12 )
Minerals Inorganic (do not contain carbon) compounds needed for regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues There are about 17 essential minerals: Major minerals (those needed in amounts exceeding 100 mg per day) include: Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride Trace minerals (those needed in small amounts) include: Copper, fluoride, iodide, iron, selenium, and zinc
The human body is composed of about 60% water; you can live only a few days without water Water is used in digestion and absorption in food and is the medium for most chemical reactions that take place in the body Recommendations: Women need to drink about 9 cups (2.2 liters) of fluid per day Men need to drink about 13 cups (3.7 liters) of fluid per day Water is lost every day through urine, feces, sweat, and evaporation
Antioxidants are substances that protect against the breakdown of body constituents by free radicals; actions include binding oxygen, donating electrons to free radicals, and repairing damage to molecules Free radicals are chemically unstable, electron-seeking compounds that can damage cell membranes and mutate genes in its search for electrons Many fruits and vegetables are rich in antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids Antioxidants also fall into a broader category of phytochemicals, substances found in plant foods that help prevent chronic diseases bright colored fruits and vegetables 29 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Plant chemicals that protect against disease and have health-enhancing benefits Examples: Anthocyanosides: red, purple, and blue Carotenoids: orange, red, and yellow Flavonoids: citrus, onions, apples, grapes, wine, tea Lignans: flaxseed, berries, whole grains, licorice Resveratrol: grapes and wine
Various tools have been created by scientific and government groups to help people design healthy diets The following are considered guidelines to use as a reference: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Adequate Intake (AI) Daily values Dietary Guidelines for Americans ChooseMyPlate (new 2010 USDA Dietary Guidelines) DASH 31 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
32 Note: that regular soda is the leading source of both added sugars and calories in the American diet, but it provides few nutrients except sugar. (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
33 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Types of vegetarian diets Vegans = vegetarian who eats no animal products Lacto-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk and cheese products in the diet Lacto-ovo-vegetarians = vegetarian who includes milk, cheese products, and eggs in the diet Partial vegetarians, semivegetarians, or pescovegetarians = vegetarian who includes eggs, dairy products, small amounts of poultry and seafood in the diet 34 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Some populations face special dietary challenges, including: Women lacking nutrient-dense foods, calcium, iron Men needing more fruits, vegetables, grains College students should improve overall quality of food choices Older adults need nutrient-dense foods, fiber, vitamin B-12 Athletes need increased energy and fluid requirements People with special health concerns should discuss this with their physician or dietitian 35 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Most widely used are sugar, salt, corn syrup, citric acid, baking soda, vegetable colors, mustard, and pepper Concerns about some additives: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) causes some people to experience episodes of sweating and increased blood pressure Sulfites cause severe reactions in some people Check food labels 37 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
To avoid harmful effects of mercury, guidelines have been set for women who are or who may become pregnant, as well as nursing mothers: Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tilefish Eat up to 12 ounces per week of a variety of fish and shellfish; limit consumption of albacore tuna to 6 ounces per week Check advisories about locally caught fish; if no information is available, limit to 6 ounces per week Follow the same guidelines for children but in smaller servings To avoid exposure to PCBs in farmed fish, some experts recommend a limit of 8 ounces of farmed salmon per month 38 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Assessing and changing your diet Staying committed to a healthy diet Try additions and substitutions to bring your current diet closer to your goals Plan ahead for challenging situations 39 (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Chapter Eight (c) 2013 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.