2Women and Economic Systems The role of women within economic systems is influenced by:Gender Role IdeologySubsistence Strategies and TechniquesGlobal Economic Factors
3Gender Role IdeologyBeliefs about the appropriateness of behaviors and roles for males and for females.Deeply embedded in consciousnessConsidered the “natural” way in which things should be doneWell integrated within all cultural systems, so that disruption of roles interferes with many aspects of daily life
4Gender and Subsistence There are four general subsistence strategies:1. Hunting and Gathering2. Pastoralism3. Horticulture4. Agriculture
5Hunting and Gathering All plants to all animals Women provide about 80% of food in most H & G societies.Men provide high status food (meat)Egalitarian societies generally and by genderSmall groups (about 30 individuals)MobileGeneralized Reciprocity is the main distribution modeNo surplus accumulated
6Pastoralism Dependence on herd animals for subsistence Herds are owned by men (husbands and sons)Women are part of the labor force that care for baby animals and milk the herds + household and child workWomen produce children who also become part of the labor forceUsually patrilineal and patriarchialMen frequently have multiple wivesGroups in the 100’sGeneralized and balanced reciprocity are the major distribution modesSurplus resides in the living herd
7Horticulture Farming with only hand tools Various sexual division of labor patternsProduction of cropsMarketing of cropsMonogamous or polygynousVillages or dispersed homesteadsReciprocity plus market system distributionSurplus production varies
8AgricultureFarming with more than hand tools (plow, tractor, draught animals, terracing, irrigation)Males control land and propertyFemales do housework and produce children as labor forceMonogamous or polygynousVillages to citiesMarket system form of distributionLarge surpluses producedO = Birth to 2A = 2-3P = 3-5L = 5-12
9Globalization Factors Exhaustion of landWarMigration of men for wage laborResult in men being absent or unable to work in traditional roles/jobsO = Birth to 2A = 2-3P = 3-5L = 5-12
10Women in FarmingRural women in particular are responsible for half of the world's food production and produce between 60 and 80 percent of the food in most developing countries.In Southeast Asia, women provide up to 90 percent of the labor for rice cultivation.Women in rural Africa produce, process, and store up to 80 percent of the food.In sub-Saharan Africa, women produce up to 80 percent of basic foodstuffs both for household consumption and for sale.Fifty percent of Third World women plough and level landSeventy percent Third World women are involved in planting, tilling and harvesting.Women perform from 25 to 45 percent of agricultural field tasks in Colombia and Peru.Women constitute 53 percent of the agricultural labor in Egypt.O = Birth to 2A = 2-3P = 3-5L = 5-12
11Blocks to Women’s Participation in Agricultural Policy and Decision-Making Farmers are still generally perceived as 'male' by policy-makers, development planners and agricultural service deliverers.Legal systems do not recognize women as having equal property rights as men.Most development monies and grants go to men.
12Consequences of Blocks Access to land - Inheritance and land tenure laws limit women's ownership and use of land.Access to credit - Short- and long-term credit is needed to pay for inputs and hired labor. Women lack property and land rights, and therefore collateral.Access to agricultural inputs - Improved seeds, fertilizers and pesticides are a vital means of enhancing production. Women usually lack access to cash or to government subsidized programs.
13Consequences of Blocks (2) Access to extension and training - Agricultural extension programs inform farmers about new technologies and plant varieties. Few extension services are targeted at rural women, few of the world's extension agents are women and most of the extension services focus on commercial rather than subsistence crops - the primary concern of women.Access to education - Prevailing attitudes about women's social, political and cultural rights severely limit girls' access to education throughout the developing world.Access to technology - Labor-saving technologies are important means of increasing production and improving people's quality of life. But the needs and priorities of women are rarely considered in the research and development of agricultural technology.
14Consequences of Blocks (3) Access to rural organizations - Agricultural cooperatives and farmers' organizations help members obtain resources and represent members' interests before government. But a common prerequisite for membership of these rural organizations is, very often, 'head of household status' or land ownership, which applies solely to men.Access to services - Services such as transport and market facilities help farmers expand their income-generating activities. Although women have a role in the trading of goods and the food they produce, illiteracy and lack of legal rights prevent them from joining formal service institutions.
15Examples of Some Consequences of Blocks Fewer than 10 percent of women farmers in India, Nepal and Thailand own land.An analysis of credit schemes in five African countries found that women received less than 10 percent of the credit awarded to male smallholders.Only 15 percent of the world's agricultural extension agents are women.
16Development ParadoxMen have historically received most or all developmental aid and funding, and it has been expected that the effects of their improved economic status will spread to women and children.The evidence shows that development aid and funding given to women has a significantly larger and more immediate impact on the lives of men, women and children.
17Women and Entrepreneurship Small and medium-scale enterprises are one important form of economic developmentWomen are increasingly taking part in this economic segment in developing nationsObstacles to women’s participation include:Lack of managerial, technical or marketing skillsLack of access to appropriate technology for safe production of goods and servicesLack of access to loans and credit with which to begin a business
18Pottery in Bolivia Traditionally Men make the pots Women provide support servicesCollecting clay and firewood with donkeysDecorating the pots with glazes made from car batteriesTaking them to marketDevelopment efforts includedIntroducing gas kilnsTrucks replaced donkeys for hauling clayMachine substituted for manual crushing of clayAlternative glazes were introducedIntroducing new designsTraining women in marketing skills
19Pottery in Bolivia (2) What did NOT change: Men continued to be the ones who made the pots.(Gender Ideology)Women continued to do the support work and marketingWhat DID change:Women’s work was made easier and more efficientThe variety of styles and designs of the pottery increasedWomen opened a retail shop in a neighboring city to sell their waresWater, gas and electricity that were installed to improve the business also improved householdsThe population of this village has remained stable, while that of neighboring villages has declined through heavy migration.
20Textiles in Kenya Traditionally Women sewed from home in the informal economic sectorDevelopment efforts includedTraining for technical and business skillsDesigning garmentsMarketingAccountingSewing machine maintenance and repairOpen up access to credit for beginning a new businessProviding new tools and machinery necessary to produce competitive garments in terms of quality and priceHelping to open up export markets for the products
21Shea Butter in Guinea Traditionally Women alone produce beurre (Shea Butter)Cultivate the plantsCollect the nutsHand crush the nuts with a stone, removing the shellsFrequently takes up to 10 hours a day to produceUsed as a subsistence food itemDevelopment efforts includedIntroducing hand-operated crushing/pressing machinesProvided credit opportunitiesProvided literacy trainingProvided accounting and administrative skills for dealing with banks, etc.Reduced production time from 10 to 2 hoursAllows a surplus production that can be used for income in addition to subsistence.
22Global Economic Factors Economically motivated migrationLeaves women behind to support families ORCauses women to be away from their families for years at a time.Global Trade OpennessPuts women in competition with industries in other countriesWarfareLeaves women behind to support their families