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CHAPTER ESSENTIALS OF A&P FOR EMERGENCY CARE Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER ESSENTIALS OF A&P FOR EMERGENCY CARE Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce."— Presentation transcript:

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2 CHAPTER ESSENTIALS OF A&P FOR EMERGENCY CARE Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biochemistry: The Basic Ingredients of Life 3

3 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Multimedia Asset Directory Slide 45Carbohydrates Animation Slide 52Lipids Animation Slide 56Proteins Animation Slide 59DNA Animation Slide 75Biochemists Video

4 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Introduction Chemistry is the study of atoms and molecules and their interactions. Physiology is largely about the interactions between molecules in our cells and tissues or, more specifically, how chemistry relates to a living organism.

5 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Introduction This special division of chemistry is known as biochemistry. In order to understand how the body works and to lay a foundation for the upcoming cell chapter you need at least a basic understanding of biochemistry.

6 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Learning Objectives Differentiate between atoms, elements and ions. Define pH, acids and bases and their role in the body. Describe chemical bonding and the role of water. Describe the properties of a solution. Distinguish among the types of biological molecules.

7 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Learning Objectives Explain metabolism. Explain cellular respiration. Explain the role of enzymes in physiology.

8 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Pronunciation Guide Click on the megaphone icon before each item to hear the pronunciation. adenosine triphosphate (uh DEN oh seen) amino (ah MEAN oh) anabolism (ah NAB oh lizm) catabolism (kah TAB oh lizm) covalent (coh VAY lent) disaccharide (die SACK eh ride) glycerol (GLIS er oll) glycogen (GLIE koh jen) metabolism (meh TAB oh lizm)

9 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Pronunciation Guide Click on the megaphone icon before each item to hear the pronunciation. monosaccharide (mon oh SACK eh ride) organelles (OR guh NELLS) phospholipid (FOS foh LIP id)

10 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Atoms, Elements, and Ions All matter, whether living, like our bodies, or non- living like this textbook, is made of elements. –An element is the smallest unit that retains the unique chemical properties of that specific type of matter. –Elements cannot be broken into smaller pieces by routine chemical techniques. –Elements are usually abbreviated using the first two letters of their technical names. –For example, the element sodium (Latin name natrium) is abbreviated Na, while the element chlorine is abbreviated Cl.

11 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Atoms, Elements, and Ions Two or more elements joined together form a molecule. –Molecules with more than one type of element are known as compounds. –Following on our previous example, the molecule you know as table salt is sodium chloride, abbreviated NaCl.

12 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Atoms, Elements, and Ions The smallest recognizable unit of an element is called an atom. –Atoms consist of a nucleus, containing protons (positively charged particles) and neutrons (neutral particles). –The nucleus is surrounded by electrons (negatively charged particles).

13 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Table 3-1 Some Important Trace Elements in the Body

14 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Table 3-1 (continued) Some Important Trace Elements in the Body

15 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-1 The atom.

16 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-2 the periodic table Figure 3-2 The periodic table.

17 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Atoms, Elements, and Ions In a typical atom, the number of positively charged protons (+) equals the number of negatively charged electrons (-). This balance of electrons and protons results in an atom with a neutral charge. However, under certain conditions, atoms can gain or lose electrons. These atoms are called ions and have either a positive or negative charge.

18 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Atoms, Elements, and Ions Atoms which have lost an electron will be positively charged, while atoms that have gained an electron will be negatively charged. –Again, we can use sodium and chlorine as examples. When NaCl (salt) is formed it is neutral and, therefore, has no charge. –However, if the elements are separated (ionization), sodium loses an electron becoming Na+, sodium ion, while chlorine gains an electron becoming Cl-, a chloride ion.

19 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Atoms, Elements, and Ions Atoms which have lost an electron will be positively charged, while atoms that have gained an electron will be negatively charged. –Ions are also said to be polar, because they have charges, like the poles on a battery. The positively charged atom is attracted to the negatively charged one. (Conversely, negative charges repel negative charges and positive repel positive.)

20 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Atoms, Elements, and Ions Atoms which have lost an electron will be positively charged, while atoms that have gained an electron will be negatively charged. –The reason why this is important is that electrolytes are charged ions found within the body. They influence the nervous system, muscle activity, and fluid balance. Important electrolytes include sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), calcium (Ca 2+ ), magnesium (Mg 2+ ), chloride (Cl - ), hydrogen phosphate (HPO 4 -) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 -).

21 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Acids and Bases Acids and bases are also electrolytes because they can conduct electricity and breakdown (dissociate) in water. Acids can dissolve metals and literally burn a hole through material (dont try this at home!). –The definition of an acid is something that can release hydrogen ions. –Acids taste sour. Acids dissolved in water release hydrogen ions that can easily react with other atoms.

22 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Acids and Bases Bases, which have a bitter taste, can accept hydrogen ions; for example, bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) can accept hydrogen ions, forming carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), which is a weak acid. Hydroxides (OH - ) are common bases, which accept spare hydrogen ions.

23 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Acids and Bases The concentration or amount of hydrogen and hydroxides are measured using the pH scale. –The pH scale is from 0 to 14, where a value between 0 and 6.9 means there are more hydrogen ions compared to hydroxide or hydroxyl ions, and so it is said to be acidic. Neutral pH, where there are the same number of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, is 7. A pH greater than (>) 7 indicates that there are more hydroxyl ions, and therefore it is said to be alkali. To give some examples, the pH of blood is between 7.35 and 7.45; bleach has a pH of 11 and grapefruit juice has a pH of 3.

24 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Acids and Bases The systems that help regulate the acid/base balance include the respiratory and renal systems. The role of the respiratory system is to take in air and get rid of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Carbon dioxide is a weak acid. If we stop breathing, there is a build-up of CO 2 in the body and this build-up of acid is detected in the brain which gives you an overwhelming desire to breathe.

25 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Acids and Bases If there is a problem with the respiratory system, the kidneys come to the rescue and enable excess acid to be lost in the urine.

26 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Table 3-2 The pH Scale.

27 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Bonding Elements can be joined together to form molecules. The individual elements in molecules are held together by bonds between electrons in the atoms.

28 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Bonding If one atom donates electrons to the other atom, an ionic bond results. Because one atom has lost electrons and the other has gained them, the atoms involved in an ionic bond are ions, and carry a positive or negative charge. –Using our previous example, the bond between sodium and chlorine in table salt (NaCl) is an ionic bond and if NaCl were to dissociate (break apart) it would form Na+ ions and Cl- ions respectively.

29 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-3 Formation of sodium chloride ions.

30 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Bonding If the electrons are shared by the atoms involved in the bond, a covalent bond results. Covalent bonds may sometimes be unequal because one atom takes more than its share of the shared electrons. This type of covalent bond, a polar covalent bond, results in weak charges on the elements in the molecule. Polar covalent bonds are more polar (slight charge) than covalent bonds, but less polar than the higher charged ionic bonds.

31 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-4 Covalent bonding.

32 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-4 (continued) Covalent bonding.

33 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Table 3-3 Summary of Bonds and Their Properties

34 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Water Water (H 2 0) is the chief liquid in biological systems. All of the fluid in your body is water-based. Water is a polar solvent because the bonds between the H and O in water are polar covalent. Oxygen takes more than its share of electrons. Thus, charged molecules will be attracted to one end or the other of a water molecule.

35 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Water Charged molecules containing elements like oxygen, phosphorus, and nitrogen, mix easily with water. Such molecules are called hydrophilic (water-loving). Other molecules which do not carry a charge, like fats and oils, do not mix well with water. They are called hydrophobic (water- fearing).

36 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-5 The polar covalent bonding of water.

37 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Water In addition, the polarity of water causes the development of hydrogen bonds between water molecules. The hydrogen on one water molecule binds weakly to the oxygen on another water molecule. The bonds between the water molecules increases waters heat capacity. Water can store heat, meaning water heats up and cools down more slowly than air.

38 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Solutions When one substance is dissolved in another the combination is called a solution. The substance dissolved is called the solute. The substance doing the dissolving, usually water in living things, is called the solvent. Electrolytes, those important ions necessary for fluid balance, are the solutes dissolved in your water-based body fluids. The amount of solute dissolved in a solvent is called the solute concentration.

39 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-6 Solutions.

40 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe FROM THE STREETS: Intravenous Fluids IV fluids often administered in prehospital care. Primary reasons for IV fluid therapy –Water replacement –Administration of essential electrolytes –Provision of calories –Provision of open vein for administration of emergency medications It is important to choose the correct IV fluid.

41 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe FROM THE STREETS: Intravenous Fluids Table 3-4 The Most Commonly Used Prehospital IV Fluids

42 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Most of your anatomy is made of molecules called biological molecules. Biological molecules are molecules found in living systems that contain mainly the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H), with lesser amounts of oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), phosphorous (P) and other elements. These molecules fall into four broad categories: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.

43 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Carbohydrates –Carbohydrates are sugars and starches. They are used as energy sources and as structural molecules. –The name carbohydrate literally means watered carbon. Carbohydrate molecules all have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio of 1 carbon, to 2 hydrogens, to 1 oxygen (CH 2 O). –Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, have 5 or 6 carbons. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), your bodys chief fuel, is a monosaccharide.

44 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Carbohydrates –If two monosaccharides are hooked together, a disaccharide is formed. Sucrose, table sugar, consists of a glucose and a fructose hooked together. –Polysaccharides are made when many monosaccharides are hooked together. Glycogen, a molecule in your liver that is used to store energy, consists of many, many glucose molecules in a long chain and therefore can be called upon to break down and release more glucose into the blood when needed.

45 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-7 Carbohydrates

46 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Click here to view an animation on the topic of carbohydrates.here Back to Directory

47 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Lipids –Lipids consist of mainly carbon and hydrogen. They have very little oxygen. –Because they have little oxygen or any other ions in them, lipids are hydrophobic. –Lipids are used for energy storage, communication, and protection. There are many types of lipids. Fats and oils are probably the lipids most familiar to you. Fats and oils consist of three fatty acid chains and a glycerol molecule. They are energy storage molecules and can be broken down when needed by the body.

48 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Lipids (contd) –Waxes are lipids that consist of a fatty acid chain with an alcohol molecule. They are some of the most hydrophobic substances known and are used mainly for protection, particularly water-proofing. (Why do you wax the car?)

49 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Lipids (contd) –A phospholipid molecule has two fatty acid tails and a phosphate (PO 4 -) head. The tails are hydrophobic but the head is hydrophilic. Phospholipids are key molecules in the structure and function of cell membranes.

50 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Lipids (contd) –The last category of lipids is steroids. Steroids are lipids with the carbon atoms arranged in rings. Steroids are structural molecules or are used for communication between cells. Examples of steroids are cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.

51 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-8 Lipids.

52 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-8 (continued) Lipids.

53 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Click here to view an animation on the topic of lipids.here Back to Directory

54 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Proteins –Molecules made of long chains of amino acids. Because amino acids have nitrogen in them, proteins are always recognizable by the nitrogen molecules in the backbone of the molecule. –A special linkage called a peptide bond ties the amino acids together and is unique to protein molecules. –The structure of a protein is determined by the order of amino acids in the molecule.

55 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Biological Molecules Proteins (contd) –The most versatile of all biological molecules act as structural molecules (collagen in tendons and ligaments), speeding up biological reactions (enzymes), storing energy (egg white albumin), moving your body (muscle protein), protecting against infection (antibodies) and allowing cells to communicate (the hormone, insulin), to name just a few functions of proteins.

56 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-9 Amino acids and proteins.

57 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Click here to view an animation on the topic of proteins.here Back to Directory

58 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Nucleic Acids The last category of biological molecules is nucleic acids. There are only two nucleic acids in nature, RNA and DNA. They are involved in controlling the activities of cells and are the molecules that contain your genetic code. You will learn more about nucleic acids when we discuss cellular reproduction.

59 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-10 Nucleic acids.

60 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Click here to view an animation on the topic of DNA.here Back to Directory

61 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Metabolism Metabolism refers to all of the chemical operations going on within our bodies. Metabolism requires various nutrients or fuel to function and produces waste products much like a car consumes gas for power and produces waste, or exhaust. Metabolism, for now, can be thought of as all the life- sustaining reactions within the body. Metabolism is further subdivided into two opposite processes.

62 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Metabolism Anabolism is the process by which simpler compounds are built up and used to manufacture materials for growth, repair, and reproduction. –This is the building phase of metabolism. Many anabolic reactions are dehydration synthesis reactions in which water is removed and biological molecules are hitched together.

63 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Metabolism Catabolism is the process by which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances. –Many catabolic reactions are hydrolysis reactions in which water is added to break apart large molecules.

64 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-11 Metabolic reactions: Dehydration synthesis builds new compounds while hydrolysis breaks down compounds.

65 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Enzymes In order for your cells to be able to do anything, chemicals must be broken down and others must be made. You need building materials to build the small cell parts called organelles and to make energy. Any of these processes require chemical reactions to occur in the cell.

66 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Enzymes The problem is that these reactions are usually very slow. The hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis reactions used in cellular metabolism cannot happen without help. To solve this problem, cells have special proteins called enzymes.

67 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Enzymes Enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions, making them fast enough for your cells to use the materials. Enzymes are protein molecules that have special binding sites on them. Biological molecules bind to the enzymes and are carried through the reaction, much like riders on a roller coaster. When the reaction is finished, the enzyme goes back to get more molecules, called substrates.

68 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Enzymes Because enzymes are a binding system: –They are specific. Only certain molecules can be carried by certain enzymes. –Substrates can compete for binding sites. –If all the binding sites are full, the enzymes are said to be saturated, and molecules must wait for an empty enzyme before going through the reaction. –The enzymes can also be blocked or inhibited, preventing the substrate from binding. Enzymes are unchanged by their participation in the reaction.

69 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-12 Enzymes: Note the enzyme has the ending ase as in sucrase and the actual substrate is sucrose.

70 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Cell Energy and ATP How does energy get from food to cells? In simple terms, the body takes in food and breaks it down (digestion). During this process, energy is released from the food. The problem is that cells cant use this energy directly. Only food converted to glucose can be used to make energy.

71 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Cell Energy and ATP Glucose can be used by your cells during a series of chemical reactions called cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, glucose is combined with oxygen and is transformed in your mitochondria into the high energy molecule called Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).

72 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Cell Energy and ATP ATP is made up of a base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups (hence, triphosphate). The phosphate groups are held together by high-energy bonds. When a bond is broken, a high level of energy is released. Energy in this form can be used by the cells.

73 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Cell Energy and ATP When a bond is used, ATP becomes ADP (adenosine diphosphate), which has only two phosphate groups. ADP now is able to go and pick up another phosphate and form a high-energy bond so energy is stored and the process can begin again.

74 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Figure 3-13 Energy is released from the breaking of the phosphate bond in ATP when converting to ADP.

75 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe FROM THE STREETS: A Cellular Toxin Cyanide, a common product of combustion, stops energy production by cells. Cyanide poisoning can be fatal if an antidote is not rapidly administered. Maintain a high index of suspicion for possible cyanide poisoning in victims who have been exposed to the products of combustion of cyanide (often used in mining and jewelry-making).

76 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Click here to view a video on the topic of biochemists.here Back to Directory

77 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Snapshots from the Journey The smallest unit that is recognizable chemically is an element. Elements are made of atoms. Atoms consist of a nucleus (neutrons and protons) surrounded by electrons. Elements can be joined together to make molecules. All living matter is composed of elements. Atoms may gain or lose electrons, causing them to have a charge. These atoms are called ions. Physiologically important ions are called electrolytes.

78 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Snapshots from the Journey pH is the measure of acidity or alkalinity of the body. Carbon dioxide is a weak acid and must be appropriately removed to maintain a normal pH in the blood. This is accomplished by a balance between the renal and respiratory systems functions. Atoms are bound together to form molecules. If electrons are shared by the atoms, the bond is covalent. If one atom gains electrons while the other loses them, the bond is ionic and the molecule is polar.

79 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Snapshots from the Journey Water is a polar covalent molecule that is the basis of all body fluids. Molecules that mix with water are polar and are called hydrophilic. Molecules that will not mix with water are non- polar and are called hydrophobic. A solution consists of a substance dissolved (the solute) in a liquid (the solvent). The solvent in biological systems is usually water. Living things are made of biological molecules. Biological molecules fall into four categories based on physical characteristics; proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.

80 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Snapshots from the Journey For cells to carry out metabolism they must have energy in the form of ATP. ATP is made via a complex series of reactions called cellular respiration. Enzymes, biological catalysts, are also necessary for cellular metabolism. Metabolism is dependent on the breakdown and manufacture of molecules called biological molecules. Each type, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids have unique characteristics. Electrolytes are charged ions that have important roles in body functions.

81 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe Case Study Juanita has always been overly concerned about her weight even though she is considered physically attractive and fit by her peers. However, the prom is approaching and she has resorted to the dangerous practice of using diuretics to slim down to fit into her gown. During gym class she suddenly became light-headed, had heart palpitations and was taken to the hospital. Her blood studies showed an electrolyte imbalance. Research diuretics and their connection to this case.

82 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe FROM THE STREETS You are called to the scene of a 17 year-old female complaining of feeling confused. The patients blood glucose is 55 mg/dl (normal range mg/dl). Her mother describes that her daughters prom is approaching and she has been trying to lose weight by taking the drug Metformin (Glucophage ® ). Metformin is a antihyperglycemic drug that blocks glucose absorption in the stomach.

83 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe From the Streets Questions Would the patient lose weight by taking the Metformin? Explain why? What type of molecule is glucose? Why is the patients blood sugar slightly low? Why is she feeling confused?

84 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe From the Streets Questions Would the patient lose weight by taking the Metformin? Yes Explain why? The drug block glucose absorption in the GI tract reducing absorbed calories. What type of molecule is glucose? Carbohydrate Why is the patients blood sugar slightly low? The drug blocks glucose absorption Why is she feeling confused? Blood glucose is slightly low

85 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 1.The nucleus of an atom consists of a.Protons b.Neutrons c.Electrons d.a & b e.a, b & c

86 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 2.A person loses body temperature faster in water than in air because water a.is hydrophilic. b.has a high heat capacity. c.is our major body fluid. d.is polar.

87 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 3.Which of the following is not a property of enzymes? a.Specificity b.Saturation c.Polarity d.Inhibition

88 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 4.These biological molecules will not mix with water. a.Proteins b.Carbohydrates c.Lipids d.Amino acids

89 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 5.A new molecule is discovered in a deep sea cave fish. It has the following properties: hydrophilic, very large, used for energy storage. What kind of molecule is it? a.Lipid b.Protein c.Nucleic acid d.Carbohydrate

90 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 1.Atoms or molecules which can gain or lose an electron are called ________________. 2.Unequal sharing of electrons in a bond results in a ______________________ bond. 3.Sodium, potassium, and chloride in body fluids are known as ___________________.

91 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 4.NaCl can be in solution in your body. What is the solvent? ____________________ 5.All the chemical reactions in your body are collectively known as ____________________. 6.Your cells need glucose to make this high energy molecule ______________________.

92 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of A&P for Emergency Care Bruce J. Colbert Jeff Ankney Karen T. Lee Bryan E. Bledsoe End of Chapter Review Questions 1.Explain the relationship between atoms, elements, molecules, and ions. 2.List and explain the types of bonds between atoms. 3.Distinguish among the four classes of biological molecules. 4.Explain the chemistry of water. Why is water important in biological systems? 5.Explain the functions of enzymes.


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