Presentation on theme: "Learning Words Inside and Out: Vocabulary Instruction Grades 1-6"— Presentation transcript:
1Learning Words Inside and Out: Vocabulary Instruction Grades 1-6 Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words inside and out: Vocabulary instruction that boosts achievement in all subject areas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Podcasts, Videos, and study guide availableat
2Today’s PurposesDiscuss the impact of vocabulary on language acquisition and subject area learningExamine barriers to vocabulary acquisition and instructionUse a self-assessment rubric on vocabulary development at your school
3How Often Has This Occurred? In a 2nd grade Social Studies class studying maps, a student is asked to use the word legend in a sentence:Native Americans had a legend about coyotes.
4What led the student to this incorrect response? Background knowledge?Understanding of how to use resources?Background knowledge: he confused his understanding of Native American legends with the map legends used to represent information.Understanding of resources: he doesn’t know that the dictionary often provides more than one definition, and that you might need to search for the definition that matches the context. He chose the first definition provided.Lack of feedback: Because the terms are decontextualized, there is no opportunity to gain corrective feedback before turning it in.Inappropriate instructional routine: Copying words, writing definitions, and using the words in sentences is particularly ineffective (see Fore, Boon, & Lowry, 2007) for a fuller discussion.)
5Wash is a word. Green is a word. Would is a word. Work is a word. The students are told to write vocabulary words in the form of a sentence:Wash is a word.Green is a word.Would is a word.Work is a word.
6What led the student tothis incorrect response?Lack of feedback?Inappropriate instructional routine?
7Vocabulary’s Impact on Learning Significant predictor of reading comprehension (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1998)Vocabulary has a large impact on learning, as evidenced by its role as a predictor of reading comprehension. In addition, context-embedded (multiple meaningful experiences with terms, such as in reading, discussion, and writing) were especially beneficial to English learners.
8Vocabulary’s Impact on Learning Vocabulary size in kindergarten serves as a strong predictor of reading comprehension level in later grades (Scarborough, 2001)Vocabulary has a large impact on learning, as evidenced by its role as a predictor of reading comprehension. In addition, context-embedded (multiple meaningful experiences with terms, such as in reading, discussion, and writing) were especially beneficial to English learners.
9Vocabulary’s Impact on Learning Context-embedded vocabulary instruction promotes language acquisition for second language learners (Tong, Irby, Rafael, & Mathes, 2008)Vocabulary has a large impact on learning, as evidenced by its role as a predictor of reading comprehension. In addition, context-embedded (multiple meaningful experiences with terms, such as in reading, discussion, and writing) were especially beneficial to English learners.
11Vocabulary is Essential Role in text complexityPredictive of student difficultyTier 2 words often overlooked in favor of Tier 3Difference between “words worth knowing” and those that are “essential to understanding”Difference between knowing the definition and knowing the meaning
12Children Build Schema Long Before They Begin Reading TypesAttributesDOGConsider the ways a small child builds schema about dogs. Initially, any animal with four legs is a dog, but soon they are able to discriminate according to attributes, behavior, and so on. In time, they can tell the difference between a poodle and a beagle, for instance.Behavior
13How Do Young Children Build Schema? Authentic experiencesClose observationDialogue with othersRemind participants that vocabulary is a proxy for schema and conceptual knowledge. It is NOT just learning definitions.These are the same conditions thatcontribute to vocabulary development
15An Intentional Vocabulary Initiative Make it intentional through word selection and intentional instruction.Make it transparent through teacher modeling of word-solving and word learning.Make it useable with collaborative learning.Make it personal by fostering student ownership.Make it a priority with schoolwide practices.Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words inside and out: Vocabulary instruction that boosts achievement in all subject areas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
17Step 1: Make it Intentional with Careful Word Selection
18How does your school select vocabulary for instruction? Our PurposeHow does your school select vocabulary for instruction?
19Influence of Background Knowledge Gibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.
20Possible Vocabulary to Teach More and more garbage! Every day people throw more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go?Blue = General vocabularyGibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.
21Possible Vocabulary to Teach More and more garbage! Every day people throw more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go?Blue = General vocabularyGreen = Specialized vocabularyGibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.
22Possible Vocabulary to Teach More and more garbage! Every day people throw more trash away. As the world population increases, more people throw trash away. Garbage trucks come to pick it up, but where does all this trash go?Blue = General vocabularyGreen = Specialized vocabularyRed = Technical vocabularyGibbons, G. (1996). Recycle! A handbook for kids.New York; Little, Brown.
23The Problem: Too Many Words! Must be narrowed, but how?
24Questions for Selecting Vocabulary RepresentativeRepeatabilityTransportableContextual AnalysisStructural AnalysisCognitive LoadIs it critical to understanding?Will it be used again?Is it needed for discussions or writing?Can they use context to figure it out?Can they use structure?Have I exceeded the number they can learn?Frey, N., & Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words inside and out: Grades 1-6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
29How do you model your vocabulary thinking? Check Your RubricThis section will focus on how teacher modeling (“I do it”) in the gradual release of responsibility model) can be used to foster word knowledge and problem-solving approaches.How do you model your vocabulary thinking?
38Nutrition $25,000 Pyramid Ways to Stay Healthy Types of Dark Green Members ofVegetables the Meat andBeans GroupThe next few slides consist of examples from the book on instructional routines for collaborative learning. In this example, pairs of students came up with clues that matched the categories. This served as a review of previously taught material.Food Groups Types of Whole Grains Things to Avoid
39Clues Developed by Student Partners What do these answers indicate about the conceptual knowledge this partner group has developed?
40Concept Circle for a Dog Concept circles contain attributes of an object, phenomenon, or idea. They can be constructed with pictures or words.
41Concept Circle for a Square: Which Attribute Doesn’t Belong? Four equal anglesFour equal sidesTwo lines parallelFour equaldiametersAnswer: A square does not have diameters.
42Shades of Meaning cold warm hot Graham’s freezing Second Grade Science Vocabularyfreezingcoldwarmhot
43Step 4: Make it Personal with Individual Activities
44Check Your Rubric How do you use independent learning of vocabulary to promote spiral review and metacognition?
45The teacher states a condition for a sentence, and students compose. Generative SentencesThe teacher states a condition for a sentence, and students compose.Briefly explain this instructional routine, then invite participants to compose and share examples of each. Notice how they get more difficult.This instructional routine allows students to expand their sentences and to be able to use the word choices and mechanics that are necessary in order to convey information. Essentially, the teacher identifies a letter or word and the place in a sentence where the word will be used. Students then write sentences with the given components. The key to generative sentences is to vary the placement of the word (e.g., first position, last position, some numbered position) and the length of the sentence (e.g., exactly x number of words, fewer than x number of words, or more than x number of words). These variations require that students consider the complexity of the word and how it can be used, correctly, in a sentence. For younger children, begin with a letter (“a word that begins with /b/”). Sentences can be converted into topic sentences for a paragraph.
46Writing FramesStudents integrate academic language with vocabulary knowledge about animal habitats:I knew that ______ live in _____. I learned some new facts about _____. I learned that _____ live in ____. I also learned that _____ do not like to live _____. Another fact I learned was ____. The best thing I learned was _____.This is an example of a simple writing frame. How could it be used in primary and intermediate classrooms? Could writing frames be used as a shared writing experience for younger children?
47Alphabet Vocabulary Chart Bald EagleBellC-DE-FFlagG-HI-JK-LM-NMount RushmoreO-PQ-RS-TU-V-WX-Y-ZAn A-Z chart, adapted from the work of Janet Allen, is an effective tool for gauging progress during a unit of instruction. Here is one student’s pre-assessment about national symbols. The teacher asked them to write down anything they could think of that would be a national symbol. She collected them and used this information to understand the baseline knowledge of the class.
48Declaration of Independence A-BBald EagleBellAmerica the BeautifulC-DDollarCapitol buildingDeclaration of IndependenceE-FFlagG-HI-JJefferson MonumentK-LLincoln MemorialLiberty BellM-NMount RushmoreNational AnthemO-PPledge of AllegianceQ-RS-TU-V-WWhite HouseWashington MonumentX-Y-ZThe teacher returned the alphabet vocabulary chart to each student near the end of the unit. How much did the student learn? What evidence do you have?
49Students assess themselves to see their own progress.
50by Creating a Schoolwide Focus Step 5:Make it a Priorityby Creating a Schoolwide Focus
51How could you use a schoolwide approach for promoting Check Your Rubric.How could you use a schoolwide approach for promotingvocabulary learning?
52Use English, Science, and Social Studies content tomake the most ofvocabulary instruction.
53Use gateway affixes to increase access to unfamiliar vocabulary -s, -es, -ed, and -ing accountfor 65% of all suffixed wordsRe-, dis-, un-, in-/im- account for 50% of all the prefixed words readers will ever seeCunningham, 2002
54Words of the Week Five words a week (Port: to, out ) airport, transport, portable, port, reportGrouped by affix or derivationGrade levels propose wordsGoal is to build vocabulary and teach patterns for unfamiliar wordsConsider creating separate K-2 and 3-6 lists.Primary lists can draw from Dolch and Ogden Basic English word lists
55Ideas for Extending WOW Efforts Post the words on classroom word wallsExtra credit for using WOW words in writingPost words each week on school website and in newsletterUse words in games(Bingo, Password,Concentration)
56Incidental Learning Through Wide Reading Cumulative effect of reading: 60 minutes per day x 5 days a week= 2,250,000 words per year2,250 words learned per year this way (Mason, Stahl, Au, & Herman, 2003)A bargain, considering that only words can be directly taught each yearA second schoolwide vocabulary initiative is wide reading. This is the practice of encouraging children to read a wide range of texts of their own choosing. Wide reading contributes positively background knowledge, interest and attitude toward reading, and incidental vocabulary learning.
57Revisiting the RubricYou can use each component of the rubric to gauge success. For example, if you targeted teacher modeling you might have periodically asked teachers to complete that section of the rubric after reading the chapter in Learning Words Inside and Out, observing videos of other teachers, participating in demonstration lessons, and receiving peer coaching. If the professional development plan has been working, the average self-assessment score should be increasing. As it does, you can recognize effort and celebrate success.
66Learning Words Inside and Out: Vocabulary Instruction Grades 1-6 Podcasts, Videos, and study guide availableAtFrey, N., & Fisher, D. (2009). Learning words inside and out: Vocabulary instruction that boosts achievement in all subject areas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.