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The Birth of a Nation.

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1 The Birth of a Nation



4 What can we extrapolate from these pie charts?


6 Lecture Objectives To compare and contrast the 13 colonies
To explore controversies within and among the colonies To analyze the political, economic and social objectives of the colonies To assess the various successes and failures in experiments with self-government To assess the role of European powers in the formation and the governance of the colonies To explore the role of religion in the colonies To examine the extent to which the colonies were democratic To examine the extent to which the colonies were independent and to trace the evolution of their independence. To assess the role of dissent and rebellion in the colonies To determine the role of values such as liberty, equality and fraternity To analyze the role of Natives in Colonial America To identify the role of various European, Native and Colonial leaders To determine which colonies were more/less influential in the development of a national identity To foreshadow the implications of colonial development on the United States.

7 Financing for Colonial Development
Four types of exploration and colonization financing methods Trading Company or Joint Stock Company Colony – (1) With the king's permission, a company was formed which often had exclusive rights of trade in a particular area or over a particular product. (2) These company charters enabled the owners to sell stock or shares to private investors, who were hoping for dividends. Covenant or Self-governing Colony - colonies created and governed by the settlers (Plymouth, Rhode Island and Connecticut). Proprietary Colony - One individual or group was given by the crown the right to govern or to settle a specified company (Maryland). The government formed could be any type except that colonists had to be guaranteed basic English rights. Royal Colony - remained under Crown control. For various reasons all English colonies lost their independent status and became royal colonies

8 Northern, Middle & Southern

9 Northern Colonies Massachusetts Bay Rhode Island New Hampshire
later MA and ME Rhode Island New Hampshire Connecticut

10 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
Formation of the MBC A.    Push factors for Puritans   >Charles I had dismissed Parliament in 1629 and sanctioned anti-Puritan persecution.                 a. Archbishop Laud strongly opposed to any separation from the Church of England.                 b. Hitherto, moderate Puritans had gathered support in Parliament for reforms                 c. King refused to guarantee power of parliament or basic rights for people. B. MBC founded in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans out of fear for their faith and England's future. C. The "Great Migration" (1630’s)             1.   Pilgrims came to America aboard the Mayflower in 1620. a. Since they had a patent to settle in Virginia, it wouldn’t be valid; they drafted the Mayflower Compact while aboard, an agreement to form a government, “combine our selves together into a civil body politick.” b. By 1631, 2,000 colonists had arrived in Boston             2.    English Civil War ( ) ended the Great Migration                     a.    Puritans remained in England to fight the Royalist forces.                     b.    Puritans in England, led by Oliver Cromwell, took gov't                     c.    Charles I beheaded in 1649

11 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
Formation of the MBC D. John Winthrop - Governor of MBC           1. Covenant Theology: Winthrop believed Puritans had a covenant with God to lead new religious experiment in New World                 -- "We shall build a city upon a hill"             2. Most distinguished of the early MBC leaders. a. Elected governor 12 times and set the tone for much of its sense of religious mission.                 b. Leadership helped Massachusetts to prosper E. MBC became biggest and most influential of New England communities.         -- Economy: fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding, and some farming (wheat & corn) -- Politics: because any church-going male could vote, the MBC had a strong franchise--at least 40% of males could vote during the 1630s. The colonial government was neither a theocracy nor a democracy. The elected magistrates in Massachusetts ruled in the name of the electorate, but their responsibility was to God. Congregational ministers had no formal political authority.

12 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
MBC Politics, Society & Culture A. Governing open to all free adult males belonging to Puritan congregations (40% of pop.)         1. Percentage of eligible officeholders was more than in England.         2. Eventually, Puritan churches grew collectively into the Congregational Church -Non-church members as well as believers required to pay taxes for the gov't- supported church.         3. Non-religious men and all women could not vote         4. Townhall meetings emerged as a staple of democracy             -- Town governments allowed all male property holders to vote and publicly discuss issues. Majority-rule show of hands. B. Function of government was to enforce God's laws (part of covenant theology)         1. Provincial gov't under Governor Winthrop was not a democracy         2. Only Puritans -- the "visible saints" -- could be freemen; only freemen could vote             a.    Distrusted non-Puritan common people.             b.   Believed democracy was the "meanest and worst" of all forms of government.

13 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
MBC Politics, Society & Culture A. Church leadership         1. Influenced admission to church membership by conducting public interrogations             of people claiming to have experienced conversion.         2. John Cotton devoted to defending gov'ts duty to enforce religious rules yet advocated a civil government.         3. Clergymen were not allowed to hold political office             a. Congregation had the right to hire and fire ministers and set salaries.             b. In effect, a form of separation of church and state.             c. Puritans in England had learned their lesson when they suffered at the hands of the "political" Anglican clergy in England.         4. Cambridge Platform (1648): Voluntary synod where the 4 Puritan colonies of             Massachusetts Bay -- Mass., Plymouth, Connecticut & New Haven -- met to work out a congregational form of church gov’t in detail.             -- Significance: Congregational church became more uniform throughout New                   England.

14 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
MBC Politics, Society & Culture B. Early dissension in the MBC         1. Quakers, who believed in an inner light and not in theology, flouted the authority of the Puritan clergy and were persecuted.         2. Anne Hutchinson – believed in antinomianism (pre-destination)             a. Accordingly, the "elect" didn’t need to obey God's or man's law because they were predestined for salvation.             b. She held prayer meetings at home to discuss John Cotton’s sermons with other women; this was taboo for a non-clergy member             c. Her ideas were viewed by the clergy as heresy and she was brought to trial in1638.                 i. She claimed direct revelation from God -- even higher a heresy.                 ii. She was banished from colony; set out for Rhode Island pregnant             iii. Eventually settled in N.Y. where she & all but 1 of 14 kids killed by Indians        

15 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
MBC Politics, Society & Culture 3. Roger Williams -- minister from Salem (dissent cont.)             a. Extreme Separatist who challenged legality of Plymouth and Bay Colony charters because land belonged to Indians and was not the king’s land to grant.                     -- Claimed colony took land from Indians w/o fair compensation            b. “Liberty of conscience"                    i. Williams denied authority of civil gov't to regulate religious behavior.                         -- Stated that no man should be forced to go to church.                         -- In effect, challenged the basis of the Massachusetts Bay government.                     ii. Used "wall of separation" metaphor for church and state separation.                         -- Jefferson would later use this metaphor to disestablish religion in VA which later influenced "No Establishment" clause of the Constitution.             c. General Court banished him from colony in 1635 and Williams fled in winter of to Narragansett Bay, RI; sheltered by Indian friends.             d. He purchased lands from Indians and founded the community of Providence, accepting all settlers regardless of their beliefs.

16 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
MBC Politics, Society & Culture     E. Later challenges to Puritanism (dissent cont.)         1. First generation Puritans began losing their religious zeal as time went on.             a. Large population influx dispersed Puritan population onto outlying farms away                 from control of church and neighbors.             b. After the wave of dissention in the 1630s and 1640s (e.g. Hutchinson and Williams) conversions decreased dramatically.                 -- Children of non-converted members could not be baptized.             d. Conversions continued to decrease as 2nd generation Puritans had trouble getting their conversions authenticated by the church, thus preventing their children from being baptized.         2. The "Half-Way Covenant" instituted in 1662 to attract more members -Full membership in the tax-supported Puritan church required an account of a conversion experience, and only persons in full membership could have their own children baptized. -provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members. Those who accepted the Covenant, and agreed to follow the creed and rules of the church, could become church members without claiming a spiritual experience. These half-members could not vote on any issues within the church         3. Eventually, Puritan churches baptized almost anyone             a. Distinction between the "elect" and other members of society subsided.             b. Strict religious purity was sacrificed for wider religious participation.

17 Massachusetts Bay Colony – 1629
MBC Politics, Society & Culture F. Salem Witch Trials, 1692             a. MA suffered political, religious, and military upheaval that led to                 widespread paranoia and unrest.                 -- Not uncommon for Europeans and colonists in the 16th and 17th centuries to believe that the devil worked through witches in the real world.             b. First accusations began when young girls, after listening to voodoo tales from a black servant, began behaving oddly. -Witch Hunt: young female accusers were from the poor western part of the community and accused the more prosperous people in the eastern part.             c. 19 people hanged, 1 person pressed to death, and 2 dogs were hanged             d. Cotton Mather, one of most prominent clergymen in Massachusetts, tacitly                 supported the witch trials and thus weakening the prestige of the clergy e. Explanations include: religious discord, economic tensions, misogyny, fear of Indian attacks. f. Things came to a sudden halt, when ministers, led by Increase Mather, urged leniency.

18 Rhode Island - 1636 (recognized 1644)
Founded on Rebellion - drew independent minded people. Most individualistic and independent population (along with North Carolina). Egalitarian constitution providing for majority rule and liberty of conscience. Progressive for its time: passed laws abolishing witchcraft trials, imprisonment for debt, most capital punishment, and in 1652, chattel slavery of both blacks and whites Church & State Most religious groups were welcomed, with only some restrictions on Catholicism & Judaism. Williams built Baptist church at Providence (probably 1st Baptist church in Americas) No oaths required regarding one's religious beliefs No compulsory attendance at worship No taxes to support a state church Provided simple manhood suffrage in the colony from the outset Given charter from Parliament in 1644; squatters now had rights to land The colony was amalgamated into the Dominion of New England in 1686, as James II of England attempted to enforce royal authority over the autonomous colonies

19 New Hampshire - 1623 Named after the English county of Hampshire
In 1638 Exeter was founded by John Wheelwright. Settlers signed the Exeter Compact , similar to Mayflower Compact, in July 1639 All the towns agreed to unite in 1639, but meanwhile Massachusetts had claimed the territory. In 1641 an agreement was reached with MA to come under its jurisdiction. Home rule of the towns was allowed. The relationship between MA and NH was controversial and tenuous. In 1679 the king separated them, and Upper Plantation became the "Royal Province" with John Cutt as governor. They were reunited (as part of the Dominion of New England) in 1686 and re-divided in The "Royal Province" continued until 1698 when it came once more under the jurisdiction of MA. In 1741 New Hampshire returned to its royal provincial status All the while, economically dependent on Massachusetts Modern State motto: “Live Free or Die”

20 Connecticut The English population of the area exploded in 1636 when clergyman Thomas Hooker led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Cambridge to the CT River, where they established Hartford. Hooker objected to arbitrary strict power of Gov. Winthrop and MBC’s magistrates. His congregation also wanted more lands that MBC was unwilling grant. Three valley towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield established Connecticut colony. 1643, New England Confederation: Connecticut, New Haven, Plymouth, and Massachusetts formed a league of friendship for defense, offense, and advice. This was a first step toward the later union of states. When the colony harbored two judges who condemned Charles I to death, Charles II sought revenge by granting colonial charter to Connecticut which merged New Haven with more democratic settlements in Connecticut Valley Fundamental Orders drafted in 1639 by new Connecticut River colony            a. First modern constitution in American history b. Established a democracy controlled by "substantial" citizens                 i. Gov’t should be based on consent of the people.     ii. Patterned Massachusetts’ gov’t.

21 Connecticut Like MBC, CT was founded by Puritans who made the Congregational Church the established church. Tax revenues supported the local ministers Colonists who failed to attend Sunday services were subject to fines. Until 1708, the Congregational Church was the only legal religion in Connecticut. 1718, following a substantial gift from Elihu Yale… The Great Awakening sent shock waves through the colony in the middle of the eighteenth century, ripping the Congregational Church apart. Those who embraced the Awakening were known as New Lights, while those opposed to it became known as Old Lights. Unhappy with the often unemotional services of their regular ministers, New Lights in many towns petitioned to form separate religious societies or churches. Pequot War ( ) between an alliance of MBC and Plymouth colonies, with Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes), vs. the Pequot tribe. This war saw the elimination of the Pequot as a viable polity. Puritans used Biblical passages to justify extermination of the Pequots. Inspired, for common protection, The New England Confederation (1643)

22 Middle Colonies New York later NY & VT New Jersey Pennsylvania
Delaware New Netherland Colony: the settled areas are now part of NY, NJ, DE & CT Each colony developed religiously, ethnically, and politically heterogeneous population, (foreshadowing America)

23 New Netherland Henry Hudson’s 1609 voyage for a Northwest Passage
Multiculturalism—concept of tolerance was the mainstay of province's mother country. The Dutch Republic was a haven for many religious and intellectual refugees Concepts of religious freedom and free-trade (including a stock market) were New Netherlands imports Initially a private venture to exploit fur trade, New Netherland was slowly settled over decades. Early conflicts with Natives Mismanagement by the Dutch West India Company

24 New York New Netherland was captured from the Dutch in The English sent Navy to seize the colony, and the Dutch didn’t resist, though their last director-general, Peter Stuyvesant, urged them to fight to the end. The capture was confirmed by the Treaty of Breda in Renamed for James, Duke of York, brother of Charles II In 1688 the province was made of part of the Dominion of New England. New York's charter was re-enacted in 1691 (after James II removed) Granted religious toleration Set up local governments. No representative body. NY remained diverse, loosely collected, independent communities.

25 New York 1683, New York Chapter of Liberties: Granted freedom of religion to all Christians and gave all freeholders the right to vote. Created to attract more settlers to NY Governor Andros said "permit all persons of what religion soever, quietly to inhabit within the precincts of your jurisdiction" Colonial Assembly created - gave New Yorkers more rights than any other group of colonists including the protection from taxation without representation. NYC was the largest importer of the colonies of slaves and a supply port for pirates. benefited from being a supplier to the British fleet during wars with France The early economy of colonial NY consisted primarily of fur trade. As the importance of the merchant port of New York grew, and the agricultural areas of Long Island and the regions further up the Hudson River developed, the economy expanded and diversified.

26 New Jersey Part of Duke of York’s charter. New Jersey was then called "Albania", before this name was to be used for Albany Lord Berkeley of Stratton, a close friend of the Duke, was also given a part of NJ. Became East and West Jersey. Border was not demarcated and often disputed. In 1665, NJ was split off from NY to become a separate province, but the final border was not finalized until 1765 New York–New Jersey Line War a series of skirmishes and raids that took place for over half a century between 1701 and 1765 at the disputed border Offered religious freedom to attract settlers. Quakers came. In 1746, The College of New Jersey (now Princeton) was founded in Elizabethtown by a group of Great Awakening "New Lighters" 1766, Queens College (now Rutgers) was founded in New Brunswick by Dutch Reformed ministers with a Royal Charter from George III.

27 Pennsylvania William Penn received the colony as payment in lieu of a £16,000 debt that the Crown owed his father, naval hero William Penn. Establishment of the colony also solved the problem of the growing Society of Friends or "Quaker" movement in England, which was causing much embarrassment to the established Church of England. a. Extensive advertising with the British Isles, Holland and Germany (1) Many immigrants were Quakers from the Rhineland, Ireland and England. (2) German Protestant groups were called the Pennsylvania Dutch ("Deutschland") (3) Scot-Irish Presbyterians arrived in the 1700s as indentured servants. Radical beliefs: religious freedom for everyone, as well as fair dealings with Natives (had healthier relationships with Natives). No need for learned ministry, as one person’s interpretation of scripture was as valid as anyone’s. This was a liberating belief, especially for lower-class English. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730 colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 – 1st emancipation statute in the colonies Other pertinent Quaker beliefs (1) Equality - All people were equal. Quakers used "thee" and "thou" when addressing each other (no “you”) (2) Simplicity - to emphasize their plain living, they wore darker colors, like grays, browns and blacks and did not like to have their portraits painted; (3) Peace - Quakers refused military service as pacifists and when they controlled the legislature, they refused to appropriate any monies to fight the Indians.

28 Pennsylvania By 1750’s, Quakers lost their numerical edge, abandoned the government and left for the countryside to live by their credo German refugees prospered on the fertile soil and spirit of cultural creativeness. Mennonites - founded Germantown in 1683 Northkill Amish Settlement, est. 1740, 1st Amish settlement in Americas. 3rd richest colony in the New World. Philadelphia as America's most important city.

29 Delaware Land that later became DE changed hands many times. Because of this, DE became a very heterogeneous society made up of individuals who were religiously and culturally diverse (Swedes, Finns, Dutch, French, and some English). William Penn was granted right to rule by Crown in 1681 had a hard time governing DE because the population was diverse. He attempted to merge the governments of PA and the lower counties of DE. Representatives clashed. 1701 Penn agreed to having two separate assemblies. Delawareans would meet in New Castle and Pennsylvanians would gather in Philadelphia. The Charter of 1701 permitted Delaware a separate government from Pennsylvania

30 Southern Colonies Maryland Virginia North Carolina South Carolina
later VA, KY & WV North Carolina later NC & TN South Carolina Georgia

31 Virginia King James > Jamestown > 1607 > Christopher Newport > John Smith > Disaster. 90% of Natives had been wiped out by mid-Century Never would have made a profit, if it weren’t for the “stinking weed.” John Rolfe, who had married Chief Powhatan’s daughter Pocahantas, experimented with the Indian tobacco crop, creating a milder version that appealed to Europeans. Under Sir Edwin Sandys, the Company made a number of reforms, including creating the House of Burgesses authorized by London Company in 1619. 1st of miniature parliament in the British American colonies. Representative self-government Most representatives were substantial property owners Created as an incentive to attract settlers to the Virginia "Death Trap" Sandy also devised the headright system gave adventurers a 50-acre plot of land for each themselves and each servant or family member they brought over, provided they covered their own transportation costs Created a rise in indentured servitude, most of whom came over as teenage boys to work under contract for a certain number of years (few outlived their contract).

32 Virginia King Charles I was embarrassed by Jamestown, and made the charter a royal one, appointing the governor and council himself. Though he dissolved the House of Burgesses, they continued to meet and in 1639 the body was officially recognized. Daily life in VA was centered on work on one’s own land. People were isolated and there were no population centers besides Jamestown.

33 Virginia - 1624 Bacon’s Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon, who arrived in Virginia in 1674, led a group of disgruntled planters in an uprising against Sir William Berkeley, Virginia’s governor. Bacon and others were angry that the governor proposed ineffective solutions to Indian attacks, and because Berkeley reserved fur trading for his cronies, known as the Green Spring faction. Black slaves and white servants, who had their own desires for reform, joined Bacon. The rebellion was disorganized and ineffective. When Bacon died in 1676, the rebellion dispersed Significance of Bacon's Rebellion: Planters saw white indentured servants as too difficult to control and significantly increased importation of black slaves while reducing number of indentured servants. Planter elite increasingly played the "race card" by encouraging poor whites to discriminate against blacks; planters feared blacks and poor whites could ally themselves again in the future.

34 Maryland Despite early competition with the colony of Virginia to its south, MD developed along very similar lines to Virginia. Like VA, MD relied on the tobacco crop and had plantations spread out along the river and therefore didn’t need towns to exchange goods [b/c they could just send it on down the river]. Early settlements and populations centers tended to cluster around the Chesapeake Bay. Charles I gave Sir George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, a portion of VA for a Catholic haven and profit. Eventually Catholics became a minority and feared loss of religions freedom. Act of Toleration (1649) Guaranteed toleration to all Christians but instituted death penalty for anyone denying the divinity of Jesus (e.g. Jews & atheists) Motive: Catholics sought to protect their faith by granting certain degree of religious freedom. MD became largest haven for Catholics in colonies Region stabilized eventually due to increased immunities to disease in influx of women By 1700, Maryland was third most populous colony (about 30,000 inhabitants)

35 Carolinas – 1663 / NC & SC – 1712/ Royal - 1729
Charles II granted the Carolina charter in 1663 for lands south of Virginia Colony and north of Spanish Florida Charleston founded (1669) by settlers from England. Significant port town Religious freedom was revised (Mar 1670) to establish the Church of England. Because of communication difficulties, in 1691 a separate deputy governor was named to administer the northern half of the colony. The division of the colony into North and South was complete by 1712, although the same proprietors continued to control both colonies. In 1729, after nearly a decade-long attempt by the British government to locate and buy-out seven of the eight Lords Proprietors, both Carolinas became royal colonies Carolina society was envisioned with a hereditary nobility granted to proprietors (yet the Fundamental Constitution of Carolina was written the year before Essay Concerning Human Understanding !!!)

36 Carolinas – 1663 / NC & SC – 1712/ Royal - 1729
Impact of the British West Indies West Indies, especially Barbados, developed sugar plantation economy Slaves in British West Indies outnumbered whites 4 to 1 Slave codes adopted in Barbados to control slaves West Indies relied on mainland British America for foodstuffs. As sugar plantations began to crowd out small farmers, many came to Carolina with their slaves to farm Carolina adopted slave code in 1696 By 1710 blacks outnumbered whites.

37 Carolinas – 1663 / NC & SC Stono Rebellion (1739) (aka Cato's Conspiracy or Cato's Rebellion) the majority of the population of the SC colony were slaves largest slave uprising in Colonial history led by native Africans who were Catholic, likely from the kingdom of Congo, and some of whom spoke Portuguese (the language of trade). Jemmy ("Cato") was a literate slave who led 20 other enslaved Congolese, who may have been former soldiers, in an armed march south from the Stono River. Recruited 60 other slaves, marched down the road with a banner that read "Liberty!", and chanted in unison. They attacked Hutchenson's store at the Stono River Bridge, killing two storekeepers and seizing weapons and ammunition. Killed whites before being intercepted by a South Carolina militia near the Edisto River. In that battle, 20 whites and 44 slaves were killed, and the rebellion was suppressed. A group of slaves escaped and traveled another 30 miles before battling a week later with a militia; most of the slaves were executed In response, the South Carolina legislature passed the Negro Act of 1740 restricting slave assembly, education and movement. It also enacted a 10-year moratorium against importing African slaves, and established penalties against slaveholders' harsh treatment of slaves.

38 Georgia James Oglethorpe saw GA as a way to thwart Spain from taking the area; they controlled Florida, and England and Spain fought constantly. Oglethorpe imagined a province populated by "sturdy farmers" that could guard the border; because of this, the colony's charter prohibited slavery “The Buffer Colony” or “The Garrison State” He also intended to populate the area with England’s “worthy poor”, as an alternative to debtor’s prison. In 1732, George II [“Georgia”] granted Oglethorpe a charter. Few settlers were attracted, as there were strict rules (no slaves, no rum). Settlers were averse to strict rules so GA soon became a hard-drinking (1742 repeal) slave-owning colony (1749 repeal), which still attracted few settlers. The charter granted liberty of conscience to everyone except Catholics, and limited grants of land to 500-acre tracts. Soon became 2,000 acre limits to attract more settlers. Oglethorpe soon lost interest after a failed attempt to capture St. Augustine from the Spanish. Savannah emerged into a diverse community (included German Lutherans and Scottish Highlanders; but no Catholics)

39 Objectives Revisited To compare and contrast the 13 colonies
To explore controversies within and among the colonies To analyze the political, economic and social objectives of the colonies To assess the various successes and failures in experiments with self-government To assess the role of European powers in the formation and the governance of the colonies To explore the role of religion in the colonies To examine the extent to which the colonies were democratic To examine the extent to which the colonies were independent and to trace the evolution of their independence. To assess the role of dissent and rebellion in the colonies To determine the role of values such as liberty, equality and fraternity To analyze the role of Natives in Colonial America To identify the role of various European, Native and Colonial leaders To determine which colonies were more/less influential in the development of a national identity To foreshadow the implications of colonial development on the United States.

40 Conclusions?

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