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NOVA SCOTIA GROUND SEARCH AND RESCUE ASSOCIATION SEARCHER MODULE 4.

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Presentation on theme: "NOVA SCOTIA GROUND SEARCH AND RESCUE ASSOCIATION SEARCHER MODULE 4."— Presentation transcript:

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2 NOVA SCOTIA GROUND SEARCH AND RESCUE ASSOCIATION SEARCHER MODULE 4

3 SURVIVAL SURVIVAL PREPARATIONS: Tell someone where and when you are going and when you plan to return If you change your plans or move from one place to another, LET SOMEONE KNOW

4 SURVIVAL Contd CHOOSE CLOTHING WHICH IS SUITABLE FOR THE SEASON AND PROJECTED WEATHER. The clothing must be comfortable and protect you should the weather change

5 SURVIVAL Contd TAKE A COMPASS AND DETAILED MAP OF THE AREA WHERE YOU ARE GOING, AND MAKE SURE YOU KNOW HOW TO USE AND READ THEM BOTH

6 SURVIVAL Contd CARRY A PERSONAL SURVIVAL KIT and a BASIC FIRST-AID KIT PRACTICE SOUND BASIC SURVIVAL TECHNIQUES

7 SURVIVAL THE EIGHT BASIC RULES OF SURVIVAL

8 SURVIVAL Tell someone where you are going, and when you plan to return Never go into the bush by yourself Take enough food for several extra days in case of an emergency

9 SURVIVAL Contd Take a compass and map of the area Wear proper clothing and boots Take proper equipment with you

10 SURVIVAL Contd Plan your work, or hiking trip,so that you return to camp before dark Know how to build a fire, with emergency gear Carry a personal survival kit at all times

11 SURVIVAL LOST AND FOUND : Being lost can be uncomfortable, frustrating embarrassing and scary

12 SURVIVAL Contd One of the biggest fears of getting lost is BUSH PANIC and wildly go crashing the the bush in all directions,using up precious energy

13 survival Contd If you become lost : STAY CALM and DO NOT PANIC

14 SURVIVAL IF YOU BECOME LOST STAY CALM AND DO NOT PANIC

15 SURVIVAL Contd IMPROVISE SHELTER, you can survive for 30 days without food, 3 days without water. CONSERVE AS MUCH ENERGEY AS POSSIBLE ORIENTATE YOURSELF WITH THE MAP AND COMPASS START A FIRE( for signaling,heat,cooking and for a calming effect)

16 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL: HUNGER Not a serious threat to survival Your body fat will supply enough energy for about 30 days or more if your health is normal

17 SURVIVAL Contd THRIST A person can survive several days without water if they are in normal health Try not to think about it and keep your mind active and busy

18 SURVIVAL Contd COLD: A serious threat to survival Cold affects and individuals ability to function

19 SURVIVAL Cold contd Expose to cold, wetness and wind can result in hypothermia Maintain body temperature by staying dry,building a fire and constructing shelter

20 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL LONELINESS and BOREDOM Occurs when nothing is happening and nobody comes to the rescue Can have a greater effect on survival than thirst, hunger, cold, or pain

21 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL Loneliness contd Can be overcome by: Making decisions and acting on them Adapting to your situation Improvising solutions Tolerating solitude

22 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL Loneliness contd Avoid Panic Positive thinking Planning ways to overcome problems Being patient Keeping your hands busy

23 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL FATIGUE: When tired, you dont think clearly and become careless Overexertion, lack of sleep and boredom cause fatigue Rest as much as possible

24 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL PAIN: Attend to any injuries immediately Keeping busy lessons the effects of pain DO NOT GIVE IN TO PAIN

25 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL FEAR: Fear is a normal reaction Fear can be the greatest obstacle to survival 10 types of fear

26 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL 10 TYPES OF FEAR Death Unknown Animals Being alone Darkness weakness Punishment Discomfort Ridicule Personal guilt

27 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL The best way to deal with these fears: Identify which fear you are feeling Understand why you are afraid Use common sense to deal with and overcome each fear

28 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL BUSH NAVIGATION: DO IT ONLY IF: EASY TRAVERSE PLENTY OF DAY LIGHT GOOD WEATHER YOU KNOW HOW TO USE A COMPASS

29 SURVIVAL FACTORS AFFECTING SURVIVAL Bush Nav…contd AND YOU ARE 100% SURE OF THE DIRCTION TO TRAVEL!

30 SURVIVAL ASSISTING THE SEARCHERS 1.- If you are the slightest bit uncertain of the direction, stay put and do what you can to assist searchers

31 Survival Assisting the searchers 2.- DO NOT RETRACE YOUR STEPS The searchers will be retracting your route,either by ground or air, looking for signals

32 SURVIVAL Assisting the searchers 3.- If you are in thick bush, make your way to a conspicuous spot such as a ridge, meadow, or lake 4.- Prepare your distress signals

33 SURVIVAL EFFECTIVE DISTRESS SIGNALS THREE of anything is the universally accepted code for persons in distress SMOKE BY DAY--FIRE BY NIGHT One of the most effective signals Build three fires about 30 meters apart in a triangular manner Light them when you hear an aircraft

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35 SURVIVAL EFFECTIVE DISTRESS SIGNALS SOUND SIGNALS: Sound signals could include three shots from a firearm about 15 seconds apart Three blasts from a whistle, or horn

36 SURVIVAL EFFECTIVE DISTRESS SIGNALS International Ground to Air Signals Use any available material that may be visible to an aircraft and its spotters You may trample it in the snow,stomp down grass in a meadow, set pieces of material or clothing in a visible spot, or cut brush and stand it on end.

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42 EFFECTIVE DISTRESS SIGNALS Hand-Held Mirror Upon spotting an aircraft, stand so the sun hits the surface of the mirror Straighten your arm and form a v with two fingers Cast the reflection of the mirror through the v aimed at the aircraft

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44 PRIORITIES IN A SURVIVAL SITUATION The main enemy to survival is PANIC Remain calm and assess your resources, both in your pack and those provided by nature Assess your plan to see if it conserves,adds to or uses up energy

45 PRIORITIES IN A SURVIVAL SITUATION Priorities for a survival situation, in the appropriate order: 1. Attend to injuries 2. Construct a shelter 3. Conserve and create warmth 4. Find Water 5. Rest and conserve energy 6. Find food

46 PRIORITIES IN A SURVIVAL SITUATION BUILDING A SHELTER: A shelter will keep you warm,dry, and will aid in keeping up your moral Shelters can be built with materials provided by nature- tree boughs and stumps-or from materials from your pack

47 PRIORITIES IN A SURVIVAL SITUATION Shelter…contd Do not use too much energy building your shelter Situate your shelter near water,if possible Build your shelter on high ground ( drainage and visibility)

48 PRIORITIES IN A SURVIVAL SITUATION TYPES OF SHELTER: Fallen Tree Shelter Lean-to Wigwam Snow Cave Natural shelters (caves)

49 SURVIVAL Fallen-Tree Shelter: Under a log Find a log with a small pit under it Enlarge the pit and cover the log with boughs Keep the living area small

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51 SURVIVAL Types Of Shelter…contd LEAN-TO A pole shelter covered with boughs,plastic,or rain gear Using two trees,about 3 meters apart, lash a pole to them about 1-2 meters off the ground Lean a series of vertical poles(45 degrees) against the horizontal pole Heap spruce or fir boughs over the poles until you have a solid overhang, about 6 inches thick

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54 SURVIVAL TYPES OF SHELTER…contd WIGWAM: Construct 3 upright poles about 3 meters long, making a tripod Wrap plastic around the poles or heap boughs on the poles until a sturdy covering is made Advantage- a small fire can be built in the middle of the floor

55 SURVIVAL TYPES OF SHELTER…contd SNOW CAVE: Makes use of a large, solid snowdrift or overhang to form a tunnel with a small cavern inside Use snowshoes as a shovel, and dig a tunnel about 1 meter into the bank, wide enough to crawl through

56 SURVIVAL TYPES OF SHELTER…contd SNOW CAVE…contd Dig away at the end of the tunnel under the bank until you have enlarged an area comfortable for you Poke a small air hole from the inside out Line the cavern with boughs

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58 SURVIVAL Building a Fire: It is difficult to stay warm,cook or have safe drinking water without a fire Exercise caution when making a fire, even a small fire Build the fire near the waters edge if possible

59 SURVIVAL FIRES …contd Always keep a good supply of dry wood, and kindling on hand To keep a fire burning all night, place some green logs on top of the fire. The logs will burn slowly as they continue to dry Youll need tinder and a spark

60 SURVIVAL FIRES…contd Five Ways to Make a Flame: Safety matches-should be carried at all times and be of the strike anywhere type Lighter-be sure it has a good flint and plenty of fuel Flint and Steel: one of the safest and most reliable fire starters

61 SURVIVAL FIRE STARTER…contd Make a flame…contd Battery ( 9 volt): -touch the battery on steel wool(000-or finer) Magnifying glass: -Focus sunrays on dry tinder

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63 SURVIVAL Building a Heat Reflector: Stack green logs( or build a wall of logs) at the back of the fire A reflector is not effective unless the logs are ambering but not burning

64 SURVIVAL Types of Tinder: Old mans beard Paper Birch bark Cotton fuzz Gasoline soaked rags Sugar Cotton steel wool Birds nest Dryer lint Dead,dry grass

65 SURVIVAL FUEL: Large material requires greater heat to light Always use some type of kindling to nurture the fire, until hot enough for larger fuel Have a good supply on hand Dry wood burns better than wet

66 FUEL…contd The finer the wood the less smoky the fire The denser the wood the hotter the fire and slower to burn Green wood requires a hot fire to ignite

67 SURVIVAL Types of Kindling: Birch bark, shavings splits Dry dead grass/ twigs Gas Oil-impregnated wood Feathered stick

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69 SURVIVAL FIRE LAYOUT An ideal fire is built on mineral soil or bedrock If ground is dry,scrape down to black earth In winter, dig to solid soil, tramp the snow or dig out an area around your fire site If the snow is deep, lay several layers of green wood underneath before starting your fire Do not build your fire directly under a tree. It may result in a brush fire or snow slide

70 SURVIVAL WATER A person can go without food for an extended time, but cannot go without water for more than 2-3 days The average body uses 2-3 liters of water per day If water is accessible, DO NOT RATION

71 SURVIVAL WATER…contd During the summer,fast water,or spring water is preferred Water from marshy ground or muskeg should be boiled and use water decontamination tablets Water from moist earth: dig a hole in the mud until water seeps in and settles

72 SURVIVAL WATER…contd In winter, open water is preferred, but melted snow or ice can be substituted Ice yields the most amount of water for the fuel used Fluffy snow yields the least amount Pack snow and mix it with water as it melts Avoid eating snow. It can cause hypothermia, by lowering body temperature

73 SURVIVAL FOOD Before using survival rations, locate easily obtainable natural food If properly equipped, fish or snare small game Healthy adults can go 2-3 weeks without food Stress robs the body of important vitamins and minerals

74 SURVIVAL FOOD…contd GENERAL RULES OF FORAGING: When short on water,eat as many carbs as possible ALL fur bearing animals are edible All grass seeds are edible More food value in the roots, than the greens ALL birds and their eggs are edible

75 SURVIVAL FOOD, FORAGING..contd Skin frogs before cooking or boiling Grubs and insect larvae are edible Inside bark of trees are edible( maple birch,poplar) Most Black and Blue berries are edible Avoid RED and WHITE berries, unless you know what they are. Anything resembling a cucumber or parsnip may be poisonous

76 SURVIVAL FOOD, FORAGING…contd ALL seaweed is edible AVOID mushrooms. No nutritional value Boiling food kills most bacteria

77 SURVIVAL FOOD Some edible plants: Cat-tails(root) Bearberry Bur weed Chickweed Rock tripe Juniper berries Dandelions Pine Maple (seeds/ and sap)

78 SURVIVAL HUNTING and FISHING Do not stray far from camp in search of food, as it consumes energy Search immediate vicinity General Hunting Techniques Walk softly stop frequently Watch carefully for game,tracks,feces,and dens Snares: Primarily used for rabbits squirrels

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83 SURVIVAL INJURY-FIRST-AID Attend to all injuries immediately First-aid: saves life,reduces suffering until services of higher medical authority can be obtained

84 SURVIVAL Injury and First-aid…contd PRIORITIES FIRST PRIORITY: Severe bleeding Airway obstructions/breathing difficulties Unconsciousness Other life threatening emergencies: hypothermia, and hyperthermia

85 SURVIVAL Injury and First-aid Priorities Second priority: Severe injuries but not life threatening Back or neck injuries Fractures Burns

86 SURVIVAL Injury and First-aid Priorities Third priority: Less severe injuries which can benefit from first- aid Sprains and minor fractures Minor bleeding sickness,frostbite,etc.

87 SURVIVAL FIRST-AID Examination: Diagnosis is the key to successful first-aid Check pulse,breathing,bleeding,swelling and pallor of skin If victim is conscious, talk to the person to find out what happened

88 SURVIVAL FIRST-AID EXAMINATION …contd PRIMARY EXAMINATION CRITICAL INJURIES Breathing Heart beat Bleeding Unconsciousness

89 SURVIVAL EXAMINATION,,,contd SECONDARY EXAM NON CRITICAL INJURIES head neck spine chest and shoulders abdomen pelvis arm and legs

90 SURVIVAL TREATMENTS Rescue breathing CPR BLEEDING

91 Survival treatments…contd BLEEDING Stop bleeding by applying direct pressure Place victim into position of rest Cleanse the area with disinfectant Cleanse area around the wound, without touching it with your fingers Affix dressing with tape or bandage

92 SURVIVAL SHOCK TREATMENT Shock- can be fatal: Symptoms: Bluing of lips and fingertips Change in level of consciousness Weak or rapid pulse shallow breathing Cold, bleeding and pain can intensify shock

93 SURVIVAL SHOCK treatment..contd TO PREVENT AND CONTROL SHOCK Treat all injuries Place conscious person on back,elevate feet Place unconscious person in recovery position Reassure a conscious person Loosen clothing Keep person warm and sheltered

94 SURVIVAL FRACTURE and SPRAINS Two types of fractures and sprains Bone breaks but with the skin intact Bone breaks but protrudes from the skin

95 SURVIVAL Fractures and Sprains…contd Stabilize fractures with splints using branches,ski poles,etc. Before fastening splint, make sure the limb is in natural position Use rope,bandages, strips of cloth etc. to fasten splint Ensure there is circulation to the extremity

96 SURVIVAL BURNS Burns: Immerse in cold water Remove restrictive clothing and jewellry before swelling starts Cover burn with clean sterile cloth

97 SURVIVAL Burns…contd DO NOT apply any antiseptic,oil iodine,or butter to burn DO NOT break any blisters DO NOT remove any clothing stuck to burns

98 SURVIVAL FROSTBITE Frostbite- Freezing of skin tissue SYMPTOMS: White skin firm to touch Advanced frostbite: skin becomes waxy and hard Mild frostbite: Treated by gradually rewarming the area. Do not rub snow on frostbite Severe frostbite: Some tissue needs to be removed

99 SURVIVAL BLISTERS: Apply a large strip of gauze or tape over reddened area. Do not break

100 SURVIVAL HYPOTHERMIA Occurs when the temperature of the body falls to a level where the internal organs cease to function Usually caused by cold,wet chilling weather Body loses heat faster than it can produce it

101 SURVIVAL HYPOTHERMIS …cont;d SYMPTOMS: Violent shivering. Sheivering stops in advanced stages Bluing of the lips and finger tips Slurred speech and irrational behavior Weak, slow pulse Final phase-unconsciouness and death

102 SURVIVAL HYPOTHERMIA…contd To Avoid Hypothermia: Dress appropriately( wool layer,water/wind proof layer) Rest frequently, carry matches,highenergy food Be on the lookout for symptoms and weather

103 SURVIVAL HYPOTHERMIA…contd If you encounter someone with hypothermia Remove them from the elements Get them out of wet clothes, into a sleeping bag, near a heat source, or use body heat Give a conscious person warm drinks, no alcohol Handle gently, do not rub or make them exercise

104 SURVIVAL HYPERTHERMIA Three types: Heat cramps- caused by dehydration and salt depletion Heat Exhaustion-caused by dehydration and salt depletion Heat stroke- caused when body temprature rises above 41 degrees C

105 Survival HYPERTHERMIA …contd Ways to reduce Heat Stress: Drink plenty of fluids Increase salt intake slightly Wear light colored loose fitting clothing Listen to your body. Do not overexert yourself Treatment exact opposite from hypothermia

106 SURVIVAL DIARRHEA Can rob the body of nutrients and fluids Prevention- boil water and use decontamination pills

107 SURVIVAL Diarrhea…contd GIARDIA- BEAVER FEVER Caused by parasite from animal or human feces Symptoms: May take a week or more to show up,includes diarrhea,vomiting,nausea,cramps headaches,shills and severe gas

108 SURVIVAL Diarrhea…cont PRECAUTIONS: Boil water for five(5) minutes Wash hands thoroughly after using the toilet Never swim in a beaver pond

109 SURVIVAL TULAREMIA Caused by bacteria from human or animal feces Infected by: drinking infected water Direct contact with fur or internal parts Eating food not cooked long enough

110 SURVIVAL TULAREMIA…contd SYMPTOMS: Resemble the flu,including Fever chills sweating headaches nausea diarrhea general malaise

111 SURVIVAL TULAREMIA….contd PRECAUTIONS: Boil Water Wear rubber gloves when handling fur of dead animals Wash hands and tools carefully Cook any game thoroughly

112 SURVIVAL EXERCISE One day practical field exercise involving the construction of a lean-to and reflector fire,construct a signal fire,setting survival traps, and participation in a mock accident.

113 REFERENCES Merry,Wayne 1999, Basic Ground Search and Rescue in Canada: Home Study Guide,Context North Smith,Richard;La Valle,Richard, Hood,Rick,Lawson,Norm,and Kerr, Guy, 2003 Field Operations Guide to Search and Rescue(FOG-SAR) Skills Handbook, ERI Canada, Alberta, Canada Umpherson, Don;Bennett, Douglas; and Webb,jr.1991, Bush Safety in Mineral Exploration, Education Series #2 Ministry of Northern Development and Mines CASARA survival Guide, CASARA National Office-Operations and Training,Winnipeg,MB Lanis, Scott E., 2000 Ground /Air Signals


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