Presentation on theme: "Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Medical Faculty, Medical University – Sofia Dr. Rumen Nikolov, PhD SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS AEROSOLS PRESCRIPTION."— Presentation transcript:
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Medical Faculty, Medical University – Sofia Dr. Rumen Nikolov, PhD SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS AEROSOLS PRESCRIPTION WRITING
Vehicles (bases) A vehicle is defined as the inert carrier of the active ingredient Lipophilic base: paraffin oil, petroleum jelly, wool fat (lanolin) A lipophilic drug moves more readily into the epidermis if it is in an aqueous vehicle (to which it is less tightly bound)
The main rule of the local therapy is: if the skin is dry, use an ointment; if it is wet, use a cream. Dry, chronic inflammation often improves more with drugs administered in lipophilic vehicles, whereas moist acute inflammation is best treated with aqueous preparations.
Ointments Ointments are greases with the permissible addition of up to 25% of powder by weight. According the place of application they are: 1) unguentum dermaticum 2) unguentum ophthalmicum 3) unguentum nasale Ointments are useful in any condition characterized by dry skin (e.g. atopic dermatitis).
Pastes Pastes are greases containing more than 25% powder by weight They are useful for dry surfaces Pastes are very difficult to remove
19. OINTMENTS 19. A) Prescribe 2,5 g Nemybacin in the form of eye ointment. Rp/ Ung. ophth. Nemybacini 2,5 g D. tub. № 1 S. Apply in the lower conjunctival sac of the affected eye twice daily.
19b) Prescribe 30 g ointment, containing 2 g Salicylic acid and 4 g Benzoic acid. Rp/ Acidi salicylici 2 g Acidi benzoici 4 g Vaselini albi ad 30 g M. f. unguentum D. S. Apply to the affected skin twice daily. An ointment containing Benzoic acid and Salicylic acid in a ratio of 2:1 is calls Whitfield’s ointment. It is used mainly in the treatment of tinea pedis.
20) Prescribe 100 g officinal paste, containing Zinc. Rp/ Pasta Zinci 100 g D. S. Apply to the burned areas once daily
Creams These are either oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions and contain preservatives to prevent bacterial and fungal growth The commonest preservatives are parabens Oil-in-water emulsions rub into the skin and are easily washed off Water-in-oil emulsions are greasier
Gels Gels are semi-colloids which liquefy on contact with the skin For use on the scalp and face gels or lotion are acceptable Gels are a common form for acne preparations (e. g. Acnederm)
21. Cream and gel 21a) Prescribe Lamisil (1% 15 g) as officinal cream. Rp/ Creme Lamisili 1% 15 g D. tub. №1 S. Apply to the affected skin areas twice daily.
21b) Prescribe Troxevasin 2% 40 g as gel Rp/ Gel Troxevasini 2% 40 g D. tub. № 1 S. Apply to the affected area twice daily.
Suppositories Rectal suppositories – they can be produced a local (to treat haemorrhiods and ulcerative colitis) or systemic effects (for example anti-emetic effect) Vaginal suppositories – they are produced a local antimicrobial effect (e. g. Flagyl, Canesten Gyn 3)
22. Suppositories 22a) Prescribe Paracetamol as suppositories each of 150 mg. Rp/ Supp. Paracetamoli 150 mg D. scat. № 1 S. Insert 1 supp. in rectum 3 times daily.
22. Suppositories. 22b) Prescribe Ultraproct as officinal suppositories. Rp/ Supp. Ultraprocti D. scat. № 1 S. Insert 1 supp. in rectum once daily.
Plasters Adhesive plasters – e. g. Citoplast Transdermal patches (TTS) Scopoderm TTS – 1,5 mg/72 h Climara TTS – 25 µg/24 h Nitroderm TTS – 25 mg/24 h Duragesic TTS – 50 mcg/h
23.) Prescribe Fentanyl TTS 50 mcg/h (10 numbers). Rp/ Fentanyl TTS 50 mcg/h D.t.d. № 10 S. Stick 1 plaster of the skin once daily.
Aerosols Most drug are intended for inhalation are administered by a pressurized aerosol or, less frequently, a powder inhaler. Aerosols for oral inhalation 1. Metered-dose inhaler (e. g. 250 µg/puff) 2. Spacers – is a large volume chamber that is attached to the metered-dose inhaler used to decrease the deposition of drug in the mouth Nasal aerosols (e.g. Olynth, Flixonase) Aerosols for external application
24. Aerosols. 24a) Prescribe 100 g 0,05% Fluticasone as an officinal nasal aerosol. Rp/ Flixonase nasal 0,05% 100 g D. t. d. № 1 in flac. S. 1-2 sprays/nostril/d.
24b) Prescribe one vial Salbutamol as an officinal aerosol (Ventolin 0,1 mg/dose). Rp/ Fl. Ventolini 0,1 mg/dose D. t. d. № 1 S. One puff in the mouth.