Presentation on theme: "SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS AEROSOLS PRESCRIPTION WRITING"— Presentation transcript:
1SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS AEROSOLS PRESCRIPTION WRITING Department of Pharmacology & ToxicologyMedical Faculty, Medical University – SofiaDr. Rumen Nikolov, PhDSEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMSAEROSOLSPRESCRIPTION WRITING
2Vehicles (bases)A vehicle is defined as the inert carrier of the active ingredientLipophilic base: paraffin oil, petroleum jelly, wool fat (lanolin)A lipophilic drug moves more readily into the epidermis if it is in an aqueous vehicle (to which it is less tightly bound)
3The main rule of the local therapy is: if the skin is dry, use an ointment; if it is wet, use a cream.Dry, chronic inflammation often improves more with drugs administered in lipophilic vehicles, whereas moist acute inflammation is best treated with aqueous preparations.
5OintmentsOintments are greases with the permissible addition of up to 25% of powder by weight.According the place of application they are:1) unguentum dermaticum2) unguentum ophthalmicum3) unguentum nasaleOintments are useful in any conditioncharacterized by dry skin (e.g. atopic dermatitis).
6Pastes are greases containing more than 25% powder by weight They are useful for dry surfacesPastes are very difficult to remove
719. OINTMENTS19. A) Prescribe 2,5 g Nemybacin inthe form of eye ointment.Rp/ Ung. ophth. Nemybacini 2,5 gD. tub. № 1S. Apply in the lower conjunctival sac of the affected eye twice daily.
8D. S. Apply to the affected skin 19b) Prescribe 30 g ointment, containing 2 g Salicylic acid and 4 g Benzoic acid.Rp/ Acidi salicylici 2 gAcidi benzoici gVaselini albi ad 30 gM. f. unguentumD. S. Apply to the affected skintwice daily.An ointment containing Benzoic acid and Salicylicacid in a ratio of 2:1 is calls Whitfield’s ointment.It is used mainly in the treatment of tinea pedis.
9Rp/ Pasta Zinci 100 g D. S. Apply to the burned 20) Prescribe 100 g officinal paste, containing Zinc.Rp/ Pasta Zinci 100 gD. S. Apply to the burnedareas once daily
10Creams These are either oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions and containpreservatives to prevent bacterial andfungal growthThe commonest preservatives areparabensOil-in-water emulsions rub into the skinand are easily washed offWater-in-oil emulsions are greasier
11Gels Gels are semi-colloids which liquefy on contact with the skin For use on the scalp and face gels orlotion are acceptableGels are a common form for acnepreparations (e. g. Acnederm)
12S. Apply to the affected skin 21. Cream and gel21a) Prescribe Lamisil (1% 15 g) as officinal cream.Rp/ Creme Lamisili 1% 15 gD. tub. №1S. Apply to the affected skinareas twice daily.
13S. Apply to the affected area 21b) Prescribe Troxevasin 2% 40 g as gelRp/ Gel Troxevasini 2% 40 gD. tub. № 1S. Apply to the affected areatwice daily.
14SuppositoriesRectal suppositories – they can be produced a local (to treat haemorrhiods and ulcerative colitis) or systemic effects (for example anti-emetic effect)Vaginal suppositories – they are produced a local antimicrobial effect(e. g. Flagyl, Canesten Gyn 3)
15Rp/ Supp. Paracetamoli 150 mg D. scat. № 1 22. Suppositories22a) Prescribe Paracetamol assuppositories each of 150 mg.Rp/ Supp. Paracetamoli 150 mgD. scat. № 1S. Insert 1 supp. in rectum 3 timesdaily.
16Rp/ Supp. Ultraprocti D. scat. № 1 S. Insert 1 supp. in rectum 22. Suppositories.22b) Prescribe Ultraproct as officinal suppositories.Rp/ Supp. UltraproctiD. scat. № 1S. Insert 1 supp. in rectumonce daily.
18S. Stick 1 plaster of the skin once daily. 23.) Prescribe Fentanyl TTS50 mcg/h (10 numbers).Rp/ Fentanyl TTS 50 mcg/hD.t.d. № 10S. Stick 1 plaster of the skin once daily.
19Aerosols Most drug are intended for inhalation are administered by a pressurized aerosolor, less frequently, a powder inhaler.Aerosols for oral inhalation1. Metered-dose inhaler (e. g. 250 µg/puff)2. Spacers – is a large volume chamber that isattached to the metered-dose inhaler usedto decrease the deposition of drug in the mouthNasal aerosols (e.g. Olynth, Flixonase)Aerosols for external application
20Rp/ Flixonase nasal 0,05% 100 g D. t. d. № 1 in flac. 24. Aerosols.24a) Prescribe 100 g 0,05% Fluticasone as an officinal nasal aerosol.Rp/ Flixonase nasal 0,05% 100 gD. t. d. № 1 in flac.S. 1-2 sprays/nostril/d.
21Rp/ Fl. Ventolini 0,1 mg/dose D. t. d. № 1 S. One puff in the mouth. 24b) Prescribe one vial Salbutamol as an officinal aerosol (Ventolin 0,1 mg/dose).Rp/ Fl. Ventolini 0,1 mg/doseD. t. d. № 1S. One puff in the mouth.