Presentation on theme: "ROYAL COLONY LAND OWNERSHIP colonists allowed to own and sell more land large plantations farms with slave labor social classes developed border of Georgia."— Presentation transcript:
ROYAL COLONY LAND OWNERSHIP colonists allowed to own and sell more land large plantations farms with slave labor social classes developed border of Georgia increased south to St. Marys River and west to Mississippi River SLAVERY only wealthy could own slaves worked on rice plantations planters bought more and more land changed the economy of Georgia – grew rich slaves were property and had no rights GOVERNMENT Royal governors appointed by King Trustee laws repealed bi-cameral legislature white males with property could vote colonists had more freedom: self-government court system to settle disputes
EQ: What impact did the Royal Governors have on the colony of Georgia? John Reynolds Henry Ellis James Wright 1 st Royal Governor of Georgia Brought self-government Set up court systems Colony was poor Unpopular and ineffective Poor relations with Indians Removed from office 2 nd Royal Governor Restored the colony Reformed the government Divided GA into parishes Helped the Creek Indians Well liked and respected 3 rd (last) Royal Governor Very popular Increased the size of GA Economy improved Population increased
End of the Trustee Period and a Change in Government Georgia became a Royal Colony when the Trustee Period ended in Definition: Royal Colony – Colony overseen by the crown of England. The British Parliament had to pass a charter in order for Georgia to become an official Royal Colony. This process took two years. Georgia would not get its first official royal governor until The government of Georgia would change drastically as the people, under the leadership of the Royal Governors, would have to learn to govern themselves.
Three Royal Governors: John Reynolds John Reynolds – Georgias first royal governor. Governed from 1754 to Governor Reynolds introduced the idea of self- government to the colonists and assisted in the creation of a bicameral (two houses) legislature and the creation of a court system. Eventually, due to a disagreement between Governor Reynolds and the legislature the legislature was sent home. Reynolds tried and failed to rule Georgia himself. The British Parliament recalled Reynolds in 1757 and said that he was ineffective.
Three Royal Governors: Henry Ellis Henry Ellis – Georgias second royal governor. Governed from Governor Ellis tried to learn from the mistakes of John Reynolds. Ellis set up a budget and regulated trade with the Native Americans. Henry Ellis also worked to increase the size and productivity of the colony of Georgia. By 1759, the population of the colony had increased to over 10,000, including 3,600 slaves. In 1759, Henry Ellis became ill and returned to Great Britain. He was replaced as the governor of Georgia in 1760.
Three Royal Governors: James Wright James Wright – Georgias third (and last) royal governor. Governed from During Governor Wrights term in office the size of Georgia increased. After the French and Indian War ended in 1763, Georgia gained a large amount of land. Governor Wright believed Georgia could be even more profitable for England by allowing farmers (and their slaves) to live and work on this land. James Wright continued to serve as the Royal Governor of Georgia until the beginning of the American Revolution.
Land Ownership Settlers who came to colony of Georgia during the Trustee Period were limited in the amount of land they could own. People who came by way of the Trusts charity were limited to 50 acres of land. People who paid their way could have up to 500 acres of land. During the Trustee Period of Georgias history only men could own or inherit land. Many colonists were angry about this and wanted women to be able to own/inherit land. As Georgia continued to develop as a Royal Colony citizens were given the opportunity to purchase more land (and use slaves to work the land) and women were allowed to inherit land.
Slavery During the beginning of the Trustee Period, Georgias state law prohibited slavery (slavery was not allowed). Wealthy colonists who could afford to buy enslaved people demanded to be allowed to bring them to Georgia. Many farmers believed that in order to compete with neighboring states (like South Carolina) they had to be allowed to own slaves. Between 1750 and 1775, the number of Africans living in slavery increased from 500 to 18,000. These slaves had no rights, were not allowed to marry, were not allowed to live where they wanted, and were not allowed to learn to read or write. Slaves who broke these rules were punished, including beatings, whippings, separation from friends and family, and even death.
French-Indian War ( ) Great Britain & France went to war over the world empires. It began in N. America. Indians sign treaty to remain neutral between France and England (so they could trade with both) Iroquois Indians allow English to use the Ohio River Valley land, but French deny access, they claim that it is their land
Fort Necessity Lt. Col. George Washington is sent to survey the Ohio River Valley land Fort Necessity is built (British fort) to rival French Fort Duquesne The two sides fight, Washington is captured (but the French let him go…mistake!)
Turning point of the war : French are winning the war- guerilla warfare British commanders begin to fight in guerilla warfare tactics. British start winning the war Spain joined France as an ally. 1760: British are victorious, the war continues in Europe for three more years
Treaty of Paris (1763) King George II dies, George III takes power (has new plans for the colonies) Treaty of Paris (1763) ends the war: –France loses all land east of the Mississippi River and Canada. They keep New Orleans settlement –British claim all land east of the Mississippi, including Florida territory –Spain looses FLORIDA. –Georgias new boundary is the Mississippi
Proclamation Line of 1763 Proclamation of 1763: line through the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists could not settle west of the line. Britain claims this is to protect them from the Native American Indians Colonists hate this rule, because it was really made to keep the colonists close to the British Army ( to keep an eye on them!)
British Taxes The war was expensive, put Britain in debt So to pay off the debt, George III decides to raise taxes on the colonists Sugar Act (1764): tax on sugar, molasses, wine, indigo and coffee Stamp Act (1765): tax on all paper products
Colonial Protest Sugar Act: hurts Georgia, imported sugar from West Indies Reaction: minor protest, illegal trade Stamp Act: hurts business, industry (worse in the North) Why? Reaction: protest, burning effigy, Stamp Act Congress, forming of Sons of Liberty, and Liberty Boys: Georgians against the Act
Colonial Outrage Colonists hate these new taxes, angry with Britain Remember: taxation without representation for the colonies Sons of Liberty forms: protest group formed by Samuel Adams (Boston) Patrick Henry protests the Stamp Act, Britain drops the tax, Georgia is the only colony to sell stamps with tax (2 weeks) Doesnt hurt Georgia that bad. Why?
Townshend Act (1767) Townshend Act (1767): taxes on paper, glass, tea, paint, many items! More colonial outrage, hurts Northern colonies Reaction: Colonists boycott British goods & cloth, stop drinking tea, stop painting= hurts Britains economy Sons of Liberty grow in membership
Boston Massacre (1770) Colonists harass British soldiers in Boston. The soldiers open fire on the un-armed crowd, kill 5 colonists. Britain is mortified, repeal the tax acts, except on tea Relative peace for a few years
Tea Act (1773) Tea Act: to help save the East India trading company. Wanted to force the colonists to pay high price for tea. Reaction: Colonists smuggle tea from other countries Boston Tea Party
Intolerable Acts (1774) Intolerable Acts: to punish the colonists for tea party: –Closed the port of Boston until repaid for tea –No local government/town meetings (Repealed the MA charter) –No British official could be tried in the colonies –Quartering Act: colonists have to house British soldiers at their own expense! –Reaction: Total outrage, Continental Congress, Committees of Safety= boycott
Revolution Colonists now begin to speak of independence, but some Georgians still loyal…Why? Second Continental Congress: Georgia not very supportive, but send Lyman Hall, Button Gwinnett, George Walton to represent them