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© Mario Ianniello 20081 Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello Grassroots Peace Building in practice Ciclo di progetto Prof. Luca Brusati Anno accademico 2007-2008.

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Presentation on theme: "© Mario Ianniello 20081 Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello Grassroots Peace Building in practice Ciclo di progetto Prof. Luca Brusati Anno accademico 2007-2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Mario Ianniello Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello Grassroots Peace Building in practice Ciclo di progetto Prof. Luca Brusati Anno accademico Università degli Studi di Trieste Facoltà di Scienze Politiche Corso di Laurea Specialistica in Scienze Politiche e Internazionali

2 © Mario Ianniello Guest Lecturer Mario Ianniello PhD in Public Management (ongoing) Degree in European Public Relations and Master in Public Relations of Institutions Associate Tutor at Jönköpping University – Montenegro Level B Course Independent mentor and consultant for Advera Consulting NI, PRONI Institute of Social Education, Forum Syd Balkans,etc. Different appointments with UN, NATO, OSCE, TIPH

3 © Mario Ianniello Grassroots Peace Building in practice Peacebuilding and international politics What is peacebuilding in practice Peacebuilding and PCM Group exercises

4 © Mario Ianniello From theory to practice (1) A complex scenario of intervention –Historical-political and social-economic framework –The violent conflict and its multilevel consequences The international intervention –Why? –Which objectives?

5 © Mario Ianniello From theory to practice (2) Intervention rationale –Links between political dynamics at international (USA, Russia, EU, Serbia, Croazia, change of strategic scenario), national and local level –Sustainability of interventions –Financing vs implementation (time span) –Conditions of effectiveness and networking of local resorces Results –Who makes a project successful? (donors, beneficiaries, politics, ONG, institutions, etc.) –The stone guest: impact evaluation

6 © Mario Ianniello Complexity as a constant feature Israel - Palestine

7 © Mario Ianniello Stereotypes (1)

8 © Mario Ianniello Stereotypes (2)

9 © Mario Ianniello Commercial ad!

10 © Mario Ianniello Former Yugoslavia

11 © Mario Ianniello Political evolution before Dayton (1) After Titos decease, the republic survived mostly thanks to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia In 1989, non-serb areas autonomy was cancelled (specifically Kosovo and Vojvodina) After 1990 elections, the imminent separation of the republics became apparent, but there was aproblem unsolved: state borders didnt match the ethnic distribution

12 © Mario Ianniello Ethnic distribution in BiH (1991)

13 © Mario Ianniello Political evolution before Dayton (2) 1991: Hostilities start in Croatia 1992: EU recognizes Slovenia (declaration of independence) In Croatia, a referendum is followed by the declaration of independence (recognition by Ue and USA). The BiH conflict starts

14 © Mario Ianniello Dayton Agreement (1995)

15 © Mario Ianniello A compromise with consequences… Article VI: Entry into Force This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature: For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina For the Republic of Croatia For the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia For the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina For the Republika Srpska

16 © Mario Ianniello International Intervention

17 © Mario Ianniello NATO… NATO (Annex 1A) –IFOR (Implementation Force, Operation Joint Endeavour, dicembre dicembre 1996) –SFOR (Stabilization Force, Operation Joint Guard / Operation Joint Forge )

18 © Mario Ianniello …UN… OHR (Office of the High Representative, Annex 10, a limited- sovereignity democracy model - concurrent role of EUSR - European Union Special Representative) international institution ad hoc ( supervision of implementation of civil aspects of Dayton) IPTF (International Police Task Force, Annex 11) Agencies – UNHCR (UN High Commissioner for Refugee) – UNDP (UN Development Programme) – ICTY (Intl. Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia)

19 © Mario Ianniello …EU… EUPM (Joint Action EUPM 002/210/CFSP of UE Council) from January 2003 EUFOR (Joint Action 2004/570/CFSPD)

20 © Mario Ianniello …and all the others! OSCE (Annex 3, free elections and democratisation) ONG… –Emergency relief –Social reconstruction

21 © Mario Ianniello …and all the others! OSCE (Annex 3, free elections and democratisation) ONG… –Emergency relief –Social reconstruction

22 © Mario Ianniello Ethnic distribution in BiH (1991)

23 © Mario Ianniello Internally displaced persons (IDPs)

24 © Mario Ianniello Mines

25 © Mario Ianniello The actual situation

26 © Mario Ianniello Brainstoming exercise (15 minutes) … … A BC … … … … … WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF A VIOLENT CONFLICT?

27 © Mario Ianniello Categories Politics Economy Society Technology Legal frame Environment

28 © Mario Ianniello Peace interventions (Peace making) Traditional UN approaches –Peace keeping –Peace enforcing Peace building (now integrated in the UN system)

29 © Mario Ianniello Multilevel Peace Building

30 © Mario Ianniello Grassroots peacebuilding Key element of sustainability to the peace process in a post-conflict scenario (UN AGENDA FOR PEACE 1992, BRAHIMI REPORT 2000) Intervention typology integrated with peacemaking, essential contribution to preventive diplomacy Reconciliation based on relationships reconstruction to allow the healing of social and psychological traumas through dialogue (LEDERACH 1997)

31 © Mario Ianniello The role of NGOs Filling a vacuum: –First emergency relief –Physical reconstruction –Social reconstruction Adopting a participatory model –Contextually relevant –Culturally sensitive –Real needs responsive –Decentralization driven

32 © Mario Ianniello NGOs peacebuilding challenges Frozen political/social context Economic situation Infrastructures Freedom of movement Black economy Poor government control Dated legislation Social situation Destroyed social fabric and relationships Ethnic violence and discrimination Anti-internationals feelings

33 © Mario Ianniello NGOs response to contextual challenges Type of programme to develop and implement (in given context, NGOs often take the role of social reconstruction and democratisation ) Target group (they target the epicentre of new power and influence; usually grassroots based power of youth, community leaders, students) Duration (usually 3-5 years) Methodology (highly participatory and focussed on capacity building)

34 © Mario Ianniello Rationale for these responses Strategic choice based on where and how to be most effective Targets response to need (feedback loop) Builds on relationship between community and NGO - accountable, trusted and based on mutual control.

35 © Mario Ianniello Internal challenges Responding to the contextual challenges creates many organisational challenges Managerial challenges Ethical funding Ethical partnerships Need centred development Having staff and volunteers as beneficiaries as well as implementers Sustainability

36 © Mario Ianniello Open issues Financial sustainability Coordination Legitimacy, transparency and accountability Impact evaluation of NGOs development projects and programmes Managerialization of NGOs and coherence with the vision Cultural sensitivity in approaches and tools

37 © Mario Ianniello Characteristics of PCM Method Participatory Approach Logicality Consistency

38 © Mario Ianniello PCM pros… Accurate and Effective Project Management Project Planning Accommodating Recipients Needs Project Planning fit with Local Context Assured Transparency of Assistance More Effective Communication

39 © Mario Ianniello …and cons. Modification of LFA Importance of Workshop Participants Application of Supplementary Methods Problem-Solving

40 © Mario Ianniello Structure of PCM method Participatory Planning Monitoring and Evaluation

41 © Mario Ianniello Participatory planning (1) LFA matrix Plan of operation Stakeholders Analysis Problems Analysis Objectives Analysis Project selection Analysis Planning Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007

42 © Mario Ianniello Participatory planning (2) Team building (brain storming) Visualization (Cards) process facilitator Resources (data, skills, practice) Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007

43 © Mario Ianniello Merit of PCM Workshop Sharing information and recognition Consensus-making based on mutual understanding Project planning in accordance with the host countrys and beneficiarys needs Project planning in accordance with the local context

44 © Mario Ianniello Sustainability Capacity of becoming independent from the international aid and of using local resources Sustainability indicators – Policies – Society & Culture – Organizations & Institutions – Economy & Finance – Technologies – Environment

45 © Mario Ianniello Impact Effects (direct and indirect, positive and negative) of the implementation not included in the planning Impact evaluation happens after the intervention is over (3-5 years) Requires dedicated budget lines The overall goal is included as expected positive effects

46 © Mario Ianniello Exercise (1) 3-4 people groups 10 min. introduction/explanation 30 min. exercise 5 min. per group feedback

47 © Mario Ianniello Exercise (2) Il governo italiano ha verificato un aumento dei flussi dimmigrati clandestini attraverso i confini del nord-est, in seguito alle condizioni createsi dopo il conflitto nei Balcani Oltre agli altri strumenti posti in essere nel territorio nazionale (aumento dei controlli, legislazione ad hoc, accoglienza, etc.) il governo ha deciso di finanziare delle iniziative in Bosnia per diversificare lintervento ed aumentarne lefficacia

48 © Mario Ianniello Exercise (3) La vostra ong ha ricevuto una donazione di 1,3 ml di euro per un intervento di ricostruzione sociale nel Distretto di Brcko della durata di cinque anni ( il primo e lultimo anno, euro gli altri anni). Il finanziamento ha lo scopo di stabilizzare la situazione della popolazione e ridurre il numero delle persone che abbandonano il paese.

49 © Mario Ianniello Exercise (4) Rispondete alle seguenti domande: –Quali sono le considerazioni principali nella pianificazione del vostro intervento –Chi saranno i vostri beneficiari (e perché) –Come intendete intervenire (per linee generali) –Con chi avreste intenzione di cooperare (se intendete farlo) –Quali risultati pensate di garantire al donor alla fine dei 5 anni

50 © Mario Ianniello

51 © Mario Ianniello Memo The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work.

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