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Grassroots Peace Building in practiceUniversità degli Studi di Trieste Facoltà di Scienze Politiche Corso di Laurea Specialistica in Scienze Politiche e Internazionali Ciclo di progetto Prof. Luca Brusati Grassroots Peace Building in practice Guest speaker: Dr. Mario Ianniello Anno accademico © Mario Ianniello 2008
Guest Lecturer Mario Ianniello (firstname.lastname@example.org)PhD in Public Management (ongoing) Degree in European Public Relations and Master in Public Relations of Institutions Associate Tutor at Jönköpping University – Montenegro Level B Course Independent mentor and consultant for Advera Consulting NI, PRONI Institute of Social Education, Forum Syd Balkans,etc. Different appointments with UN, NATO, OSCE, TIPH © Mario Ianniello 2008
Grassroots Peace Building in practicePeacebuilding and international politics What is peacebuilding in practice Peacebuilding and PCM Group exercises © Mario Ianniello 2008
From theory to practice (1)A complex scenario of intervention Historical-political and social-economic framework The violent conflict and its multilevel consequences The international intervention Why? Which objectives? © Mario Ianniello 2008
From theory to practice (2)Intervention rationale Links between political dynamics at international (USA, Russia, EU, Serbia, Croazia, change of strategic scenario), national and local level Sustainability of interventions Financing vs implementation (time span) Conditions of effectiveness and networking of local resorces Results Who makes a project successful? (donors, beneficiaries, politics, ONG, institutions, etc.) The stone guest: impact evaluation © Mario Ianniello 2008
Complexity as a constant featureIsrael - Palestine © Mario Ianniello 2008
Stereotypes (1) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Stereotypes (2) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Commercial ad! © Mario Ianniello 2008
Former Yugoslavia © Mario Ianniello 2008
Political evolution before Dayton (1)After Tito’s decease, the republic survived mostly thanks to the League of Communist of Yugoslavia In 1989, non-serb areas autonomy was cancelled (specifically Kosovo and Vojvodina) After 1990 elections, the imminent separation of the republics became apparent, but there was aproblem unsolved: state borders didn’t match the ethnic distribution and rediscovered the old motto “all serbs in one state” , in cui ciascun gruppo etnico voto` per quei partiti che sostenevano il rispettivo diritto all’autodeterminazione, divenne chiaro che il paese si stava dividendo in Stati indipendenti © Mario Ianniello 2008
Ethnic distribution in BiH (1991)and rediscovered the old motto “all serbs in one state” , in cui ciascun gruppo etnico voto` per quei partiti che sostenevano il rispettivo diritto all’autodeterminazione, divenne chiaro che il paese si stava dividendo in Stati indipendenti © Mario Ianniello 2008
The BiH conflict startsPolitical evolution before Dayton (2) 1991: Hostilities start in Croatia 1992: EU recognizes Slovenia (declaration of independence) In Croatia, a referendum is followed by the declaration of independence (recognition by Ue and USA). The BiH conflict starts Filmato? © Mario Ianniello 2008
Dayton Agreement (1995) © Mario Ianniello 2008La guerra continuo` fino al dicembre 1995, quando fu finalmente firmato un accordo di pace a Dayton – Ohio - (USA). A tre settimane di negoziazioni intense, segui` un accordo preliminare e la firma ufficiale del trattato ebbe luogo a Parigi il 14 dicembre. Slobodan Milosevic, Alija Itzebegovic, Franjo Tudjman © Mario Ianniello 2008
Article VI: Entry into ForceA compromise with consequences… Article VI: Entry into Force This Agreement shall enter into force upon signature: For the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina For the Republic of Croatia For the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia For the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina For the Republika Srpska Filmato? © Mario Ianniello 2008
International Intervention© Mario Ianniello 2008
NATO… NATO (Annex 1A) IFOR (Implementation Force, Operation Joint Endeavour, dicembre dicembre 1996) SFOR (Stabilization Force, Operation Joint Guard / Operation Joint Forge ) and rediscovered the old motto “all serbs in one state” , in cui ciascun gruppo etnico voto` per quei partiti che sostenevano il rispettivo diritto all’autodeterminazione, divenne chiaro che il paese si stava dividendo in Stati indipendenti © Mario Ianniello 2008
…UN… OHR (Office of the High Representative, Annex 10, a limited-sovereignity democracy model - concurrent role of EUSR - European Union Special Representative) international institution ad hoc (supervision of implementation of civil aspects of Dayton) IPTF (International Police Task Force, Annex 11) Agencies UNHCR (UN High Commissioner for Refugee) UNDP (UN Development Programme) ICTY (Intl. Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia) © Mario Ianniello 2008
…EU… EUPM (Joint Action EUPM 002/210/CFSP of UE Council) from January 2003 EUFOR (Joint Action 2004/570/CFSPD) © Mario Ianniello 2008
…and all the others! OSCE (Annex 3, free elections and democratisation) ONG… Emergency relief Social reconstruction © Mario Ianniello 2008
…and all the others! OSCE (Annex 3, free elections and democratisation) ONG… Emergency relief Social reconstruction © Mario Ianniello 2008
Ethnic distribution in BiH (1991)© Mario Ianniello 2008
Internally displaced persons (IDPs)© Mario Ianniello 2008
Mines © Mario Ianniello 2008
The actual situation © Mario Ianniello 2008
Brainstoming exercise (15 minutes)… A B C WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF A VIOLENT CONFLICT? © Mario Ianniello 2008
Categories Politics Economy Society Technology Legal frame Environment© Mario Ianniello 2008
“Peace” interventions(Peace making) “Traditional” UN approaches Peace keeping Peace enforcing Peace building (now integrated in the UN system) and rediscovered the old motto “all serbs in one state” , in cui ciascun gruppo etnico voto` per quei partiti che sostenevano il rispettivo diritto all’autodeterminazione, divenne chiaro che il paese si stava dividendo in Stati indipendenti © Mario Ianniello 2008
Multilevel Peace Building © Mario Ianniello 2008
Grassroots peacebuildingKey element of sustainability to the peace process in a post-conflict scenario (UN AGENDA FOR PEACE 1992, BRAHIMI REPORT 2000) Intervention typology integrated with peacemaking, essential contribution to preventive diplomacy Reconciliation based on relationships reconstruction to allow the healing of social and psychological traumas through dialogue (LEDERACH 1997) © Mario Ianniello 2008
The role of NGOs Filling a vacuum: First emergency reliefPhysical reconstruction Social reconstruction Adopting a participatory model Contextually relevant Culturally sensitive Real needs responsive Decentralization driven © Mario Ianniello 2008
NGOs peacebuilding challengesFrozen political/social context Economic situation Infrastructures Freedom of movement Black economy Poor government control Dated legislation Social situation Destroyed social fabric and relationships Ethnic violence and discrimination “Anti-internationals” feelings © Mario Ianniello 2008
NGOs response to contextual challengesType of programme to develop and implement (in given context, NGOs often take the role of social reconstruction and democratisation ) Target group (they target the epicentre of new power and influence; usually grassroots based power of youth, community leaders, students) Duration (usually 3-5 years) Methodology (highly participatory and focussed on capacity building) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Rationale for these responsesStrategic choice based on where and how to be most effective Targets response to need (feedback loop) Builds on relationship between community and NGO - accountable, trusted and based on mutual control. © Mario Ianniello 2008
Internal challenges Responding to the contextual challenges creates many organisational challenges Managerial challenges Ethical funding Ethical partnerships Need centred development Having staff and volunteers as beneficiaries as well as implementers Sustainability © Mario Ianniello 2008
Open issues Financial sustainability CoordinationLegitimacy, transparency and accountability Impact evaluation of NGOs development projects and programmes Managerialization of NGOs and coherence with the vision Cultural sensitivity in approaches and tools Without making a proper classification under appropriate headings that you can easily trace in the past lectures, i would like to quote some of the problems encountered that reflects directly on the management of NGOs. © Mario Ianniello 2008
Characteristics of PCM MethodParticipatory Approach Logicality Consistency © Mario Ianniello 2008
Accurate and Effective Project Management PCM pros… Accurate and Effective Project Management Project Planning Accommodating Recipients’ Needs Project Planning fit with Local Context Assured Transparency of Assistance More Effective Communication © Mario Ianniello 2008
Importance of Workshop Participants …and cons. Modification of LFA Importance of Workshop Participants Application of Supplementary Methods Problem-Solving © Mario Ianniello 2008
Structure of PCM methodParticipatory Planning Monitoring and Evaluation © Mario Ianniello 2008
Participatory planning (1)Analysis Stakeholders Analysis Problems Objectives Project selection Planning LFA matrix Plan of operation © Mario Ianniello 2008 Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007
Participatory planning (2)Team building (brain storming) Visualization (Cards) process facilitator Resources (data, skills, practice) Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008 Adapted from Minato, AD – IDRI, FASID 2007
Merit of PCM Workshop Sharing information and recognitionConsensus-making based on mutual understanding Project planning in accordance with the host country’s and beneficiary’s needs Project planning in accordance with the local context Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Sustainability Capacity of becoming independent from the international aid and of using local resources Sustainability indicators Policies Society & Culture Organizations & Institutions Economy & Finance Technologies Environment Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Impact Effects (direct and indirect, positive and negative) of the implementation not included in the planning Impact evaluation happens after the intervention is over (3-5 years) Requires dedicated budget lines The overall goal is included as expected positive effects Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008
10 min. introduction/explanation 30 min. exercise 3-4 people groups 10 min. introduction/explanation 30 min. exercise 5 min. per group feedback Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Exercise (2) Il governo italiano ha verificato un aumento dei flussi d’immigrati clandestini attraverso i confini del nord-est, in seguito alle condizioni createsi dopo il conflitto nei Balcani Oltre agli altri strumenti posti in essere nel territorio nazionale (aumento dei controlli, legislazione ad hoc, accoglienza, etc.) il governo ha deciso di finanziare delle iniziative in Bosnia per diversificare l’intervento ed aumentarne l’efficacia Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Exercise (3) La vostra ong ha ricevuto una donazione di 1,3 ml di euro per un intervento di ricostruzione sociale nel Distretto di Brcko della durata di cinque anni ( il primo e l’ultimo anno, euro gli altri anni). Il finanziamento ha lo scopo di stabilizzare la situazione della popolazione e ridurre il numero delle persone che abbandonano il paese. Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Rispondete alle seguenti domande:Exercise (4) Rispondete alle seguenti domande: Quali sono le considerazioni principali nella pianificazione del vostro intervento Chi saranno i vostri beneficiari (e perché) Come intendete intervenire (per linee generali) Con chi avreste intenzione di cooperare (se intendete farlo) Quali risultati pensate di garantire al donor alla fine dei 5 anni Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience) © Mario Ianniello 2008
Main carachteristics of participatory planning (information, expertise, experience)© Mario Ianniello 2008
Memo “The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work.” (Agha Hasan Abedi BCCI founder) © Mario Ianniello 2008
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