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Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I.

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Presentation on theme: "Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I

2 Introduction to the English language system STRUCTURES Phonology/Graphology Lexis Grammar > Morphology > Syntax Phrases (noun phrase – verb phrase) Clauses

3 Focus on… StructuresLevelsGrammar

4 Morphology Syntax

5 Verbs Morphological features (structure) Semantic features (meaning) Syntactic features (a role in the clause)

6 Morphological features inflectional: - third person: -s - past: -ed / irregular forms -participial forms: -ed / irregular forms; -ing N.B. In alcuni casi sarà necessario tenere presenti alcune variazioni ortografiche: wash/washes, plays/studies, playing/studying, write/wrote…

7 Semantic features: Verbs refer to processes/actions things as well as to states or feelings Syntactic features: A verb typically fills the predicate slot in a sentence Tom ARRIVED She SAW Tom

8 VERBS AUXILIARY be have do modal verbs LEXICAL go work study wait

9 VERBS FINITE FORMS is/was/are has drive/drives drove walked (past) NON FINITE FORMS being been driven walked (participle) walking

10 From VERB to VERB PHRASE A Verb Phrase is a group of words that plays the role of a single verb in a clause: She studies German She is studying German She has been studying German She may have been studying German

11 Verb Phrases Structural features Semantic features Syntactic function

12 Strucuture I wait I have waited I was waited I was waiting I have been waiting I had been waiting Auxiliaries + Lexical verb N.B. Nelle forme composte solo lausiliare è in forma finita with a blue dress

13 Structure AUXILIARY FINITE has had was had been was has been had been LEXICAL VERB NON FINITE waited waiting

14 From words… to phrases Sulla base delle mutazioni morfologiche del verbo e con il supporto degli ausiliari si realizzano i sintagmi verbali > gruppi di parole che servono a veicolare significati complessi in merito a: collocazione sullasse temporale > TENSE aspetto dellazione > ASPECT modo dellazione > MOOD direzione dellazione > PASSIVE

15 Time Tense Time is a universal, non-linguistic concept with three divisions: past, present, and future; by tense we understand the correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time.

16 Time Tense TIME Realtà fisica : presente passato futuro TENSE Realtà grammaticale: serve a collocare le azioni sullasse temporale

17 TIME Present Past Future

18 DO – IT – YOURSELF! WAIT

19 HE WAITS HE WAITED HE WILL WAIT HE HAS WAITED HE HAD WAITED HE WILL HAVE WAITED

20 Collocare sullasse del tempo Simple Present Birds fly I leave tomorrow Sailor crosses the Channel Present perfect I have lost my key Simple Past Yesterday I went to school When I was younger I went to school Past Perfect He had already finished (at 5.00) Simple Future I will finish tomorrow Future Perfect I will have finished University by 2006 Time:PAST NOW FUTURE Tenses: collocare sullasse temporale vari esempi

21 ASPECT (I): from SIMPLE to PERFECT SimplePerfect Presentbare infinitive / -sHAVE+ p.p. Past-ed / irregualar formsHAD + p.p. Futurewill + bare infinitiveWILL HAVE + p.p.

22 ASPECT (II): CONTINUOUS ContinuousPerfect Continuous PresentSimple Present BE + ING IS waiting Present Perfect BE + ING. HAS BEEN waiting PastSimple Past BE + ING WAS waiting Past Perfect BE + ING HAD BEEN waiting FutureSimple Future BE + ING WILL BEwaiting Future PERFECT BE + ING WILL HAVE BEEN waiting

23 SIMPLE/CONTINUOUS HE WAITS HE IS WAITING HE WAITED HE WAS WAITING HE WILL WAIT HE WILL BE WAITING PERFECT/PERFECT CONTINUOUS HE HAS WAITED HE HAS BEEN WAITING HE HAD WAITED HE HAD BEEN WAITING HE WILL HAVE WAITED HE WILL HAVE BEEN WAITING

24 Collocare sullasse del tempo Simple Present Birds fly I leave tomorrow Sailor crosses the Channel Present perfect I have lost my key Simple Past Yesterday I went to school When I was younger I went to school Past Perfect He had already finished (at 5.00) Simple Future I will finish tomorrow Future Perfect I will have finished University by 2006 Time:PAST NOW FUTURE Tenses: collocare sullasse temporale vari esempi

25 Riportare sullasse temporale I am studying I was studying I will be studying I have been studying I had been studying I will have been studying

26 Per concludere TIMETENSE/ASPECT PresentSimple Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous I study I have studied I am studying I have been studying PastSimple Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous I studied I had studied I was studying I had been studying FutureSimple Perfect Continuous Perfect Continuous I will study I will have studied I will be studying I will have been studying


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