Presentation on theme: "Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I."— Presentation transcript:
Lexis and Grammar for Translation Dott. M. Gatto Lingue e Culture per il Turismo Lingua e Traduzione Inglese I
Noun Phrases Structural features Semantic features Syntactic function
A lady An English lady An old English lady A strange old English lady with blue dress with a blue dress
Structure A An English An old English A strange old English lady with a blue dress
Structure A strange old Englishladywith a blue dress PREMODIFICATION HEAD POSTMODIFICATION
Semantic role Noun phrases typically refer topeople, animals, objects, places, institutions, emotions, phenomena….
Syntactic Function Subject Object Indirect Object Complement of preposition Apposition Subject/Object predicative
Focus on structure A Noun Phrase is composed potentially of three parts: HEAD (i.e. WHAT we are talking about): the minimial requirement for the occurrence of the phrase; it is generally realised by a noun or a pronoun (he, one, someone, books, journey…) other elements (optionally occurring) which add further information about the head itself: - PREMODIFICATION - POSTMODIFICATION
Premodification A lady An English lady An old English lady A strange old English lady with a blue dress
POSTMODIFICATION qualifiers > add further information concerning extrinsic features the beautiful girl in the corner the red book on your desk
Focus on HEAD A NOUN : John, girl, cat… A PRONOUN (no pre-/post-modification): he, she, we… AN ADJECTIVE (with articles): the rich, the poor…
Translation problems: Different use of the definite article in English and Italian: ITALIAN > generic context > IL TURISMO, LA LETTERATURA ENGLISH > generic context > TOURISM, LITERATURE ITALIAN > preference for definite articles Si è rotto LA gamba ENGLISH > preference for possessives He broke HIS leg
The functional perspective The use of articles is generally associated by student to a number of rules to be learned by heart. Lets address the problem from a different perspective by trying to grasp the function of articles in English
The use of articles depends in English on two basic factors: the grammar status of the noun as mass/count the context as generic/specific
MASS COUNT In English when we use a NP, the language obliges us to make it clear whether the referent is perceived as a discrete, countable entity OR an indivisibile, non-countable mass entity.
* It is a grammar category (it cannot be inferred from the observationof reality): E.g. MILK = MASS/ INFORMATION = MASS * It is language-specific (it changes from language to language): E.g. UN LATTE (?)/UNINFORMAZIONE
Articles and massnouns: Ø article + singular > e.g. milk > mass: Ø milk [*A milk (inaccettabile)] Also consider double use: coffee (substance) > mass: Ø Coffee is stimulant coffee (cup) > count: May I have a coffee, please? work > mass: Ø Work in cooperation is… job > count: Tom is looking for a job What about translation?
Grammatical markers of count: car/cars > count: I bought a car / The car I bought… / All the cars…/ Ø Cars are… * all articles (a, the, Ø ) are used
GENERIC SPECIFIC The use of definite and indefinite articles helps us understand if reference to something is generic or specific
Generic reference is given by: Ø + mass > childhood A/AN; THE + count sing. > a/the child Ø + count plural > children
Specific reference is given by: THE (mass +count) THE + mass > THE childhood [of many 19 th century writers was unhappy] THE + count sing. > THE child THE + count plural > THE children [The children I saw in the garden…]