Presentation on theme: "Environmental changes in Italian Cities Some quantitative data Abu Dhabi, 19- 21 January 2009."— Presentation transcript:
Environmental changes in Italian Cities Some quantitative data Abu Dhabi, January 2009
In 1800 less than 3% of the world population lived in towns and cities. By 1900 the total had become 150 million, while today the urban population exceeds 3 billion or, in other words, more than half the number of people living in the world. The United Nations estimates that more than 2/3rds of the world population will be living in towns and cities by % of the total population of OECD member states reside in towns and cities as against 23% in rural areas. According to the World Bank, almost a fifth of gross domestic product is generated in the 10 most economically important metropolitan centres. At present, towns and cities take up 2% of the earths surface, use 75% of its natural and energy resources, and produce 80% of its CO2 and harmful gas emissions. Apart from being a national concern, saving the environment is increasingly becoming a worldwide emergency. In order to analyse the environmental aspects of Italian cities, Rapporto Cittalia 2008 presents statistical findings by looking at three major issues: green open urban spaces, air quality and the urban refuse disposal system. The statistical charts are based on a series of studies carried out in 11 Italian cities (Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, Palermo, Rome, Turin and Venice).
(a) The data refers to green public areas managed (directly or indirectly) by public bodies (local authority, provinces, regions, state) that exist in the local authority area. Green open urban space available, 2007 (a) (m2 per inhabitant) Source: Cittalia reworking of "Osservatorio ambientale sulle città", Istat (2008) data The chart sets out cities according to the amount of green open space they have available to residents in terms of m2 per inhabitant. Although, besides being influenced by the extent of green open space, the data is also influenced by the number of inhabitants, the cities that emerge with the greatest amount of green open spaces are Cagliari, Rome and Palermo in terms of m2.
Density of green open spaces in 2007 (a) (% of local authority area) Source: Cittalia reworking of "Osservatorio ambientale sulle città", Istat (2008) data a) The data refers to green public areas managed (directly or indirectly) by public bodies (local authority, provinces, regions, state) that exist in the local authority area. If we examine the density of green open spaces in cities we find again Cagliari in first place, followed by Palermo and Rome. The position of big cities like Milan and Turin is better, while Bari e Venice (which is obviously a special case) bring up the rear.
As the bar chart shows, the big Italian cities exceeded the agreed limits very frequently. In particular Turin exceeded the fixed limit on 172 days in the course of 2006, Milan (149) and Rome (118), this latter being preceeded by Venice (120). All the other cities fall below the Italian average and also some way distant from the first four. The most virtuous turned out to beSotto la media italiana, e distanti dalle prime quattro, si collocano tutte le altre città. Le più virtuose risultano Genoa, Palermo e Florence. Number of days when PM10 limits were exceeded in 2006 by large cities. Source:"Osservatorio ambientale sulle città", Istat (2007)
Production per capita of refuse, (kg per inhabitant)*, 2007 Source: Cittalia reworking of "Osservatorio ambientale sulle città", Istat (2008) data The chart shows how Venice, Florence and Rome are the cities with the highest level of output of refuse per inhabitant, while Milan and Genoa reveal the lowest levels.
Percentage of urban refuse subjected to recycling (The % variations for are given alongside the name of each city) Source: Cittalia reworking of "Osservatorio ambientale sulle città", Istat (2008) data The chart shows the % of refuse recycled. In general the period 2002 – 2007 saw a continuous growth in the % of refuse recycled in all the major cities, with the exception of Palermo. The most consistent rise in the recycling of refuse occurred in those cities that showed themselves to be most behind in 2002: Cagliari, Rome and Palermo. However, in 2007 the cities of southern Italy remained behind those of the centre-north. Turin is the city that recycled the greatest percentage (40%) of its refuse in 2007, followed by Milan (35%) and Florence (32%). Trailing behind, despite substantial progress, remain Naples (13%), Cagliari (12%) and Palermo (4%). Rome is still a long way behind the northern cities with an overall percentage of recycled refuse of only 16%.
Production of urban refuse in thousands of tonnes, 2002, 2006 Source: Cittalia reworking of "Rapporto rifiuti", Apat (2007) data Looking at the quantity of urban refuse produced by large cities in absolute terms, reveals Rome as having the greatest output. This obviously reflects the fact that the Capital has a greater population than other cities. From 2002 to 2006 the only cities that registered a decrease in such figures were Milan and Genoa, while the others show moderate increases. The only exception was Rome which showed a consistent increase in quantity (+11%).
PaperGlassPlasticsWoodMetals Turin Milan Genoa Venice Bologna Florence Rome Naples Bari nd Palermo Cagliari The principal recycled urban waste materials, per thousand tonnes, 2006 Source: "Rapporto rifiuti", Apat (2007)
00186 Rome Via del Leone Rome Via dei Prefetti 46
ANCI is the National Association of Italian Local Authorities, and its main purpose is to represent and look after its members interests as regards their relations with Parliament, the Government, the Regions, the Public Administration, Community organisations, the Committee of the Regions, and any other institution that might exercise a public function involving local interests, are concerned. This comprehensive approach translates, in practice, into a series of activities that typify an association that has come to be recognised over time by all national governments as the body representing the interests of local authorities. In particular, ANCI: Promotes the study and investigation of problems involving villages, towns and cities; Sends its own representatives to meetings at all institutional bodies when decisions are taken affecting its members. Acts as a consultant and gives assistence to local authorities regarding the legal responsibilities of Parliament and the State. Examines problems regarding local authority employees and plays a role in the body that draws up national employment contracts (ARAN) in this field. Helps initiatives aimed at increasing awareness of local institutions. Encourages and co-ordinates its members international relations and their activities in the field of decentralised international co-operation. WHAT IS ANCI
Cittalia – A European study and research centre for local authorities and cities, it is an ANCI sponsored foundation which develops investigations and scientific analysis regarding urban policy. Its role is that of supporting the Association and the Italian local authorities in identifying solutions to those challenges posed by economic and social change that local communities are facing. It is a centre for the collection of data, for analysis and for spreading knowledge of and competence in the main urban issues: welfare systems and social cohabitation, sustainable energy and environmental issues, as well as development and innovation policies. Its work is carried out by a group of in-house researchers and by a wide network of experts working in local authorities, institutions, universities and consultancies. The work carried out by Cittalia is made known through reports on investigations, analysis reports, the publication of dossiers and papers, and by means of on-line communication. Cittalia combines analysis and think-tank activity with the development of new ideas, policy lines and proposals about the management of urban matters. WHAT IS CITTALIA