2Syllabus – 5A3 Issues in Australian Environments Students learn about:Geographical issues affecting Australian environments including:Air qualityCoastal managementLand and water managementSpatial inequalityUrban growth and declineWaste management
3Syllabus – 5A3 Issues in Australian Environments Students learn to: describe each geographical issue in relation to:its natureits impactsthe responses by individuals, groups and governments to the issueoutline how a range of geographical issues are affecting Australian environmentsWe will focus on 2 geographical issues in depthdevelop a research action plan, apply fieldwork techniques, present geographical information and demonstrate active citizenship
4What is a Geographical Issue Geographical issues involve the interaction of the physical and human environments and have the following aspects:A spatial dimension – where and why the issue is occurringAn ecological dimension – the way humans interact with the physical and human environmentA particular scale – local, regional, state, national or international
5What is a Geographical Issue continued Geographical issues involve the interaction of the physical and human environments and have the following aspects:Geographical processes – physical and human forces operating to cause the issueDifferent perceptions – range of viewpoints or opinions about the issueDifferent groups involved in the issue including residents, communities, governments and businesses
7Spatial Inequality ‘The great divide.’ Spatial inequality investigates the differences that exist in relation to access to resources and services between different areas of AustraliaExamples include:The type and quality of housing in an areaIncome levelsAccess to schools and institutions for further educationThe quality of health services and employment opportunities that are available to people.Geographers work to ensure that access to resources is fair and equitable and to remove some of the barriers that spatial inequality presents.
9Coastal management ‘Managing our coastline in a sustainable way.’ The Australian coastline is a resource under pressure due to human activity that is changing the natural processes that have formed and shaped the coastal environment for thousands of years.Issues in coastal environments centre around managing human alterations to natural processes and repairing damage.
11Urban growth and decline ‘Everything old is new again.’ Urban growth refers to urban areas increasing, either in area or in population size.Urban declineAreas within a city that become disused as a result of changes in industry or in the nature of a community.The decline of small rural towns as larger urban centres grow.Urban growth and decline are influenced by the geographical processes of urban consolidation, urban decay, urban renewal and suburbanisation.
12Urban growth and decline Q. 41 Which geographical issue affecting Australian environments is best illustrated by Source D below? (A) Air quality (B) Urban growth (C) Spatial inequality (D) Land and water management
13Waste managementModern living leads to huge volumes of waste being produced, which is disposed of in the oceans, air, rivers and on the land.Geographical issues surrounding waste include:The type of waste and the disposal of it.Using waste as landfill which consumes large areas of land.Chemical and contaminated waste sites.Solutions focus on reducing theamount of waste generated,promoting the reusing of items anddeveloping recycling options in orderto promote a more sustainable futurethrough waste reduction.
15Land and water management Australia is the driest inhabited continent on Earth.Water management is important as communities face the issues of water quantity and quality.Land management is a confronting geographic issue for rural Australia. Salinity, soil erosion and desertification are all geographical processes acting to destroy productive cropland. Through the development of land management techniques, farmers are able to use their land more sustainably.Land and water management issues are intertwined as the sustainable management of the land is linked to the sustainable use of Australia’swater resources.
16Air qualityThe cost of poor air quality in cities is difficult to accurately measure but has been linked to a number of health problems.Two major pollutants are:Pollution from reliance onmotor vehicles.Pollution from industry.Air pollution can be made worse by the topography of the land, as is the case for Sydney’s location on a coastal plain surrounded by mountains.
17Civics and Citizenship Once geographical knowledge and management solutions about an issue are developed it is important that this knowledge is used effectively to promote a more sustainable and equitable future for all Australians.Civics involves the knowledge of effective ways individuals, groups and governments can influence the decision-making processes about an issue.Citizenship involves action or exercising your rights to influence the decision-making processes to ensure a fair and sustainable outcome.
18Refer SIMB – past questions A mixture of multiple choice, short answer and extended response on geographical issues from past papers
20Australia’s CoastsIn comparison with many countries of the world, Australia possesses an enormous continuous coastline.Australia's coast including islands stretches for about kilometres and comprises over separate beaches.About two-thirds of the population live in the towns and cities that have been built to take advantage of the many benefits the coastline brings.
21Coastal Management– Activity Terrigal Lagoon and Wamberal BeachThe Cronulla beachesResearch ONE of the above beaches which is experiencing coastal management issues.Outline the geographical processes causing the issue (refer next slide)Identify the groups that are involved in the issue and explain the actions they are taking to manage the issue or influence the decision- making processes.Describe the likely solution to the issue.
22The geographical processes relevant to coastal management Atmospheric processes –caused by such elements as temperature change, storms and the force of the wind.Biotic processes –plant and animal life and the way they interact.Geomorphic processes –uplifting forces within the Earth’s crust, which create sea cliffs or the forces of erosion and deposition.Hydrologic processes –action of the waves, the tides and ocean currents.