2General Information: Poultry popular for holidays Chicken most popular Average American eats 75 pounds of poultry per year.Products from poultry:MeatEggsMedicine and vaccinesFeathers for clothes, pillows, fish luresOrnamental uses/hobbies
3Kinds of Poultry: Types : Common names – Fowl or Birds Chicken Turkey DucksGeeseQuailPeafowlSwansPigeonsRatitesPheasantsCommon names – Fowl or Birds
4Chickens: Most important species Raised for meat and eggs Meat of a chicken is based on age and sex
5Names of chickens:Broiler – Young chicken 6-7 weeks, weighs about 4 pounds. Either sex. 7 billion are raised each year in the US.Roaster – Young chicken older and slightly larger than a broiler.Capon – Male chicken that has been neutered (castrated) months old. Weigh 6 pounds.Spent Hen – Hen that no longer lays eggs. Used in soups, or processed foods.Layer – Mature female. Can produce around 300 eggs per year.Hen – Mature female, laying.Pullet – Young female not yet laying eggsCock – Mature male, can be called a rooster.Cockerel – Young male that is less than one year old.
6Common breeds: White Leghorn – used in egg production. Smallest Barred Plymouth Rock – meat and eggsNew Hampshire – Meat and eggsWhite Rock – meat and eggs. Largest.
7Turkey: Raised primarily for meat Consumers want white meat 300 million turkeys are raised each year in the US
8Turkey Names: Poult – young turkey Tom – mature male turkey or gobbler.Hen - female turkey
9Turkey Facts: Raised in confinement Marketed at 20 weeks Most popular is the broad-breasted white
10Ducks: Raised for meat, eggs, down, and feathers. Down – the soft feathery covering that grows under the feathers.
11Duck Names: Duckling – young duck – still has down Drake – mature male duckHen – mature female duck
12Duck Facts: 15 million ducks are raised in the US each year. Grow faster and heavier than chickensCan swimMost raised indoors on commercial farms.
13Geese:Used for meat, eggs, feathers and ornamental purposes. Some used to control weeds.1 million raised in the US each year.Resist a lot of diseases that other poultry get.
14Geese Names: Gosling – baby goose of either sex Gander – Mature Male gooseHen – Mature female gooseGaggle – flock or group of geese that are not flying.
15Peafowl Names & Use: Peacock – mature male peafowl. Peahen – mature female peafowl.Train – male tail feathers.Use - for their feathers.
16Swans: Love water Colors range from white to black Used for ornamental purposes
17Ratites:Flightless birds which include: Ostrich, emu, kiwi, cassowary, and rhea.Largest is the Ostrich – weighs 350 pounds – stands 10 feet tall. Life span – 70 years.Raised for – feathers, meat, skin and oil.
18Guinea Fowl:Raised for food, as novelty bird, and to stock game preserves.Have thick shell and because of this are often used for ornamental purposes.
19The Poultry Industry: Early Poultry Production First poultry raised was more than 5000 years ago in Asia and in Egypt about 3500 years ago.Poultry was brought to North America in 1607Turkeys were native to North America
20Modern Poultry Industry: Raised in ConfinementLeading states for meat production: Georgia, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and North CarolinaLeading state for egg production: CaliforniaLeading states for turkey production: North Carolina, Minnesota, and California.Poultry Science – the study and use of areas of science in raising poultry.Vertical integration – more than one step in the poultry process (chick/feed/growers/broilers/buyers)
21Poultry as Organisms: Classified as Aves Vertebrates Differ in digestion and reproductionDigestion – beak and gizzardReproduction – eggs are hatched, 21 days (chickens) days (geese) Turkeys (27-28 days) and ducks (28-35 days). Incubation period is influenced by temperature and humidity.Appearance – yellow pigmentation – egg production. Large red comb – good health. Ragged feathers – poor health.
22Poultry Production Systems: 4 areas:Broiler Production – 6 weeks to raiseEgg Production – 24 weeks to raiseEgg Quality: 95% marketed are whiteParts: Shell, Albumen, Yolk, MembraneJudging eggs – CandlingMolting – Process of shedding and renewing feathers. Laying eggs stops during molting. Takes about 2 months to have a bird completely molt out.Pullet for egg ProductionPullets begin to lay eggs at 24 weeks.Pullet and Cockerel for broiler egg production.One cockerel per 8-10 pullets
23Housing and Equipment: Housing – Controlled environment.Litter – wood shavingsLighting – control laying cycle (14 – 16 hours) and cannibalism (red light).Temperature – 85 – 95 degrees F for babies, 70 for 6 week birdsHumidity – % in broiler houses. Mist systems are used.Ventilation – using large fans. Helps prevent cannibalism.Automated equipment is used
24Sanitation: Use disinfectants Vaccinate Dispose of dead birds in an incineratorDiseases – mostly caused by a bacteria or virusMarek’s Disease – virus - paralysis of legs and wings.Newcastle – Virus – soft eggs, affects birds gasp, twist neck around.Infectious Bronchitis – virus – nasal discharge, laying stops.Fowl Cholera – bacteria – fever, colored heads, death.
25Sanitation: Parasites – Coccidiosis – parasite – droppings get into food or water. Birds are sleepy, pale and listless.Large Roundworms – worms picked up in soil.Mites – Pest that sucks blood, use insecticides to rid. Bird is pale, droopy and listless.Tapeworm – Bird pale, looses weight. Found in soil.