91.8 grams 3. Mass of the world’s smallest bird in grams—the Bee Hummingbird of Cuba?1.8 grams
10Elephant Bird 4. The world’s largest egg is from what bird? (30 cm by 20 cm)
11What is the volume of this egg? “The shape of an egg can be thought of as two halves of ellipsoids with different radius dimensions. One has radii of A, A, and B; the other has radii of A, A, and C. The volume is given by the formula: (1/2)(4π/3)A2B + (1/2)(4π/3)A2C” = (2π/3)A2(B+C)= 2/3 п 102 (30) = 6300 cc(http://www.had2know.com/academics/egg-surface-area-volume-calculator.html)
125. The largest egg laid by a living bird is from the . . .OSTRICH
22Swim bladder comprises approximately 5% of total volume of fish in salt water species, but 7% infresh water species.Because the swim bladder lies below thedense backbone, the center of buoyancy isusually just below the center of mass,which is why fish go “belly up” when theydie
23Distended stomach of grouper If fish caught in deep water, swim bladder expands on way up and ruptures, releasing gas into body cavity.
24What do you think the density of this shark is? Columbian SharkWhat do you think the densityof this shark is?Specific Gravity : ,saltwater as adults ( )
25Sharks lack a swim bladder, but compensate with an extremely large liverfilled with oil, 85% of it being squalene—a polyunsaturated liquid hydrocarbon(C30H50) with a specific gravity of .858
26“Some marine invertebrates, such as squid Ion Replacement:“Some marine invertebrates, such as squidand shrimp, replace heavier ions withlighter ones.For example, some species replaceSulfate (96 u) ions with chloride (35.5 u)ions. [Seawater (with sulfate) has a densityof 1.026, but the same concentration ofNaCl has a density of1.020] Still other speciesreplace sodium (23 u)ions with ammonium(17 u) ions.”(http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic252223.files/Week%2013%20Lectures/OEB191_buoyancy.pdf )
27“A vacuole inside the Antarctic marine zooplankton Calanoides acutus changes its density and buoyancy by having a wax ester that changes from a liquid to a solid at the cold temperatures.”(asknature.org)
28“The mobile foot of the aquatic violet snail creates a raft by collecting air bubbles and enveloping them in mucus.” (asknature.org)
29Net diffusion of O2 into bell and CO2 Diving Bell SpiderNet diffusion of O2 into bell and CO2out – due to differences in partialpressure
30"As the spider consumes oxygen from the air in the bell, it lowers the oxygen concentration inside. The oxygen can decrease below the level of dissolved oxygen in the water, and when this happens, oxygen can be driven into the bubble from thewater.“(http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/ )
31Adaptations to high pressure: Lack of swim bladders andother air-filled spaces, to avoidcompression and the bends.Liquids cannot be compressedBlobfish
32High pressure distorts complex biomolecules, such as proteinsand cell membranes.Used by food companies tosterilize food: High PressureProcessing (HPP) uses pressuresup to 5500 atm to killmicroorganisms
33High pressure sterilizers utilize high pressure hydraulic fluids, typically water,at moderate temperatures tosterilize food and beverage products.
34Some deep-sea organisms contain "piezolytes" (from the Greek "piezin"for pressure) to withstand high pressureThese large biomolecules are notdistorted under high pressureA common piezolytes is trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) ,which produces the “fishy” smell of fishThe deeper the depth of the fish, themore “fishy” they tend to smell!
42Bioluminescence or cold light – using chemical reactions to producelight
43According to scientists from NOAA, 90% of animalsin waters below 500 mexhibit bioluminescence!
44Bioluminescence is generated by an enzyme-catalyzed chemoluminescence reaction, inwhich the pigment luciferin isoxidized by the enzyme luciferase.
45Edith Widder: “The weird, wonderful world of bioluminescence” TED talk
46FIREFLIES CONTROL THE RATE OF FLASHING? Fireflies use nitric oxide to control their flashes. NO causes mitochondriato briefly shut down, which releases a pulse of oxygen that triggers anenzyme to turn on light.HOW DOFIREFLIES CONTROL THE RATE OF FLASHING?
47DO FIREFLIES FLASH FASTER IN WARM WEATHER? Fireflies flash faster in warmer weather,since photocytes are same temperatureas surroundings, since firefliesare cold-blooded. In warmer water,less activation energy required to initiatethe reaction and reaction rate is faster.
48For degrees C, count number of chirps in 8 seconds and add 5 To determine temperature in degrees F, count number of field cricket chirps in 15 sec and add 37.For degrees C, count number of chirps in 8 seconds and add 5As outside temp. increases, so does metabolism of cricketPublished in article by AmosDolbear in 1897 entitled“The cricket as a Thermometer.”
49Which piece of copper wire would heat up the fastest?
69Skunk spray contains thioacetates, which react slowly in water to produce thiolsThiols are sulfur-containing compoundswhich our nose can detect in concentrationsas low as a few parts per billionA type of thiol compound is added tonatural gas so it can be smelledBinds strongly to olfactory receptorsin noseBeing nonpolar, thiol compoundsdissolve in other nonpolarsubstances such as hair, skin, clothing, etc.
70HOW TO REMOVE SKUNK SPRAY Use a mixture of H2O2, baking soda, and dish detergentHydrogen peroxide oxidizes thiolcompounds into odorless sulfonic acidBaking soda: 1)Rapidly splits thioacetatesinto thiols and acetate.2) Speeds up reaction between thiol andperoxide.3) Neutralizes the sulfonic acid producedDetergent helps to dissolve nonpolaroily compounds in skunk spray
72Pregnant female cochineal beetle feed on red cactus berries, where they concentrate red dye in bodies.
73First product exported from New World to Old Dye is known as cochineal extract, carmine, carminic acid, crimson lake, natural red 4,C.I , E120, etc.First product exportedfrom New World to OldCochineal red was used by the Spanish in the 1500s
755,000 – 6,000 electrocytes stacked like a battery (A voltaic pile)Each electrocyte .15 V – dischargedin series.Potential difference on eachcauses ion flow (Outside morenegative than inside)Inspiration for theories of bothLuigi Galvini and Alessandra Volta
76Bombadier Beetle Two separate glands: reactants in one C6H4(OH)2 (l) + 2H2O2 (l) → C6H4(OH)2 (l) + 2H2O (l) + O2 (g) Hydroquinone + Hydrogen peroxide → p-quinone + water +oxygenTwo separate glands: reactants in oneand catalysts in the otherHighly exothermic – up to 100°C
77Why can starlings eat fermented fruit without becoming intoxicated? “Starlings can metabolize alcohol at an exceptional speed, due to the rate of activity of the alcohol-splitting enzyme alcoholdehydrogenase, which is 14 times greater in starlings than in humans. They can indulge themselves on fermented fruit without getting drunk, since the alcohol is broken down quickly." (www.asknature.org)
78Oysters reduce ocean acidity Shells contain calcium carbonate, which neutralize carbonic acidActs like a natural antacid
79Why do grackles rub ants in their feathers, in a behavior known as anting? Ants contain formic acid, whichrepels parasites