2Small to large Atoms Element Molecule Macromolecule Cells Tissues OrgansOrganism
3Small to large Atom: Smallest possible particle of an element Element: A pure substance that can not be broken down into other substances.Molecules: Two or more atoms held together by bondsMacromolecule: a very large molecule, Protein, carbohydrate, Lipid, Nucleic AcidCells: Basic unit of living matter
4Chemistry An atom contains; protons, neutrons, and electrons Atomic number: the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atomPeriodic Table of Elements: An arrangement of elements based on their atomic number and massElements are also placed due to the number of electrons in the outer shell
5Electrons and bondingThe number of electrons in the outer shell determines how an element will react with another.Elements want to have “full” outer shells.To have a full outer shell an element will either share or transfer electronsIonic Bonding: elements transfer electronsCovalent Bonding: elements share electrons
8Water All living things are dependent on water Cells are 70% to 95% waterWater is the only compound found on earth in all 3 formsWater is one oxygen covalently bonded to two hydrogen's.Although this is a covalent bond the oxygen pulls the shared electrons closer to itself making it more negative and making the hydrogen more positive.
11Waters life-supporting properties Cohesion: The tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick to one another.Important in plants because as water evaporates it pulls itself upward in plants.Adhesion: Attraction that occurs between unlike molecules.Important because water sticks to the sides of the plant tubes and helps combat gravity.
12Waters life-supporting properties Temperature moderation: Water has a very strong ability to resist change in temperature due to hydrogen bonding between moleculesWater allows for temperature regulation of the world by staying cool in the summer and warm in the winter
13Waters life-supporting properties Ice: the solid form of water that is lower density than the liquid form. As water freezes the molecules move further apart.Important because it allows animals to continue to live under frozen water instead of being frozen from the bottom up.
14Waters life-supporting properties Water has a great ability to dissolve other substances.Water is the universal solventSolvent: The substance that dissolves another substanceSolute: The substance that is being dissolvedSolution: A uniform mixture of two or more substances.
16pH Scale Water sometimes breaks into ion’s of H+ and OH- Hydrogen ion(+) and Hydroxide ion(-)These ions are what determine whether something is an acid or base.The pH scale is an exponential scale showing acids and bases.
17Ph Scale Scale from 0 to 14 each step is 10x more than the next 0-6 is Acidic7-8 is neutral8-14 is Basic
18Lemon juice, gastric juice Acidic solutionOHH+(Higher concentration of H+)Increasingly ACIDICNeutral solutionBasic solutionNEUTRAL[H-]pH scaleLemon juice, gastric juiceGrapefruit juice, softdrinkTomato juiceHuman urinePure waterHuman bloodSeawaterMilk of magnesiaHousehold ammoniaHousehold bleachOven cleaner(Lower concentration of H+)Increasingly BASICOHH+Basic solutionMilk of magnesiaHousehold ammoniaHousehold bleachOven cleaner(Lower concentration of H+)Increasingly BASICMilk of magnesiaBleach
19(Higher concentration of H+) AcidsAn acid is any substance that gives off H+ to the solutionEx: lemon juice, stomach acidAcidic solutionOHH+(Higher concentration of H+)Increasingly ACIDICpH scale
20(Lower concentration of H+) BasesA base is a compound that removes H+ from the solution by giving off OH- to bond with the H+Ex: Soap, Bleach, Oven cleanerOHH+Basic solutionMilk of magnesiaHousehold ammoniaHousehold bleachOven cleaner(Lower concentration of H+)Increasingly BASIC
21BufferCells are very sensitive to H+ and OH- ions. Even a slight change in pH will affect a cell.A buffer will accept H+ ions when they are too high and will donate H+ when they are too low.Blood is a great example of a bufferOHH+Neutral solutionNEUTRAL[H-]Tomato juiceHuman urinePure waterHuman bloodSeawater
22Chemical ReactionThe breaking of old and forming of new bonds to make new chemical substances.Reactant: The starting materialsProduct: The ending materialsReactantsProduct
23Chemical reactionIn a chemical reaction the atoms are not destroyed or created, just rearranged.H + H + O = H2O
24Ions Ions are created when an electron is lost or gained Elements that lose an electron are positive ions (H+) due to the loss of a negative charge.Elements that gain an electron are negative ions (H-) due to the gaining of a negative charge
25Chemistry of Life Carbon is the one element required for life Any Carbon based molecule is considered an organic moleculeEach of the four macromolecules start with Carbon as the basis.CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic acids
26MacromoleculesCarbohydrate: Complex sugars made up of Carbon, Oxygen and HydrogenStarch: a large chain of sugarsEnergy source of cells
27MacromoleculesLipids: Water avoiding compound made up of Carbon and hydrogen chainsCholesterol: An essential lipid molecule needed for cell membranes.Lipids act as a barrier that contains the liquid parts of the cell. They also act as chemical messengers in the form of hormones.
28Macromolecules Proteins: A large molecule made up of amino acids Amino acid: A small molecule that is made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen.Proteins are large chains of amino acids that bond together and then fold to create useable cell parts.Proteins also make up enzymes which speed up chemical reactions.
30MacromoleculesNucleic Acids: A large molecule made up of smaller molecules called nucleotides.Nucleotides: Small molecules made up of a sugar, a nitrogen base, and phosphateNucleic acids are what our DNA or genetic material is made ofWith out nucleic acids our body would not have directions and could not function.
33Function of Proteins Made up of amino acids Responsible for most day to day functions of all cellsAmino acids link together and form a long chain
34Protein ShapeThe long Amino acid chain folds to make the protein useableA proteins shape is changed by its surroundingsA protein that is outside of its normal environment will be denatured (misshapen)
37Proteins to Enzymes A protein sometimes works as an enzyme An enzyme speeds up chemical reactions in our bodiesAn enzyme speeds up a reaction by making it easier.This is done by lowering the activation energy
38EnzymeEnzyme: A protein that speeds up chemical reactions