Presentation on theme: "PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SEAWATER. How Unique is Water? Water is one of only 3 naturally occurring liquids (mercury and ammonia) Only substance occurring."— Presentation transcript:
How Unique is Water? Water is one of only 3 naturally occurring liquids (mercury and ammonia) Only substance occurring naturally that exists in all 3 states – solid, liquid, and gas – on Earth’s surface Extremely large liquid range (0 o C - 100 o C) Expands, becomes less dense as a solid
The Nature of Pure Water Water made of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom Water is a polar molecule (+ end & – end) Water’s unusual structure causes them to “stick together” Water molecules form hydrogen bonds Hydrogen bonds not very strong, but make water different from any other substance on Earth
Water has… Cohesion – sticks to itself Adhesion – sticks to others Surface Tension – a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of water –No waves without surface tension
Water has… Low Viscosity – little resistance to flow Good for Earth’s marine organisms – WHY?
The Three States of Water Water is the only substance that naturally occurs as a solid, liquid and gas on Earth Evaporation absorbs heat Condensation releases heat
Water is Weird Density – the mass of a certain volume of a substance Solid water is less dense than liquid water Water becomes more dense as it cools –Water is most dense @ 4º C –Becomes less dense as it nears 0º C Good for the planet – WHY?
Heat Capacity The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1º C –Water has one of the highest –1 calorie raises 1 gram of water 1º C –It absorbs large amounts of energy before the temperature changes Good for earth’s climate – WHY?
Changes of State Latent Heat of Fusion / Melting – –The amount of heat required to melt a substance without change in temperature –80 calories per gram
Changes of State Latent Heat of Vaporization / Condensation– –The amount of heat required to change a substance from a liquid to a gas without change in temperature –540 calories per gram
Why is Water Important? Water is the universal solvent Water can dissolve more than any other natural substance Water can dissolve many hydrophilic substances –Ionic compounds –Other polar compounds Form “spheres of hydration” http://programs.northlandcollege.edu/biology /Biology1111/animations/dissolve.htmlhttp://programs.northlandcollege.edu/biology /Biology1111/animations/dissolve.html
Seawater has dissolved solids… Source – –Chemical weathering of crustal rocks –Hydrothermal vents –From volcanic eruptions
Water … Density of pure water is 1 g/mL @ 4º C Density of seawater is 1.0278g/mL @ 4ºC Density is determined by temperature and salinity –Seawater gets denser as it gets saltier, colder or both Because temperature varies more than salinity, density is controlled by temperature
Density… Changes with depth Densest water sinks Ocean becomes layered, stratified Seen in profiles of salinity, temperature, and density The greater the difference in density between surface and deep water, the more stable the water column and the harder it is to mix vertically
Pressure… Water is noncompressible – does not change volume with increasing pressure So is seawater Pressure increases with increasing depth –Has small effect on volume –1 atm (14.7 lbs/in 2 ) for every 10 m (33 ft) –Pressure in deepest trench ~1100 atm –As pressure increases, gases are compressed
Buoyancy The ability of an object to float by displacing a volume of water equal to its own weight
Water… Transmits energy –Heat –Light –Sound Refraction – the bending of light and sound waves due to density differences that affect the speed of energy transmission –increases with increasing salt, decreases with increasing temperature
Water… Transmits heat energy by –Conduction – molecule to molecule –Convection – moving fluids & density driven –Radiation – direct from source (sun)
Water is … Transparent – transmits light energy readily –Important for photosynthesis –Oceans are blue because blue light penetrates the deepest –Coastal waters sometimes green because blue absorbed
Water… Transmits sound faster & farther than in air –1500 m/s in seawater (& 60 times farther) –334 m/s in air At 1000 m combination of salinity, temp & pressure creates a zone of minimum velocity for sound – the Sofar Layer (sound fixing and ranging layer) –Sound waves produced here do not escape & travel long distances