Presentation on theme: "The Single most abundant compound in most living things"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Single most abundant compound in most living things WaterThe Single most abundant compound in most living things
2 Properties of Water Water: Expands upon freezing Has adhesion properties (capillary action)Has cohesion properties due to surface tensionHas a high specific heatHas a high heat of vaporizationHas a high heat of fusionIs the greatest solvent on Earth
3 Expansion upon Freezing Water is a liquid across most of the earthWater expands as it freezes (ice is less dense than liquid water = ice floats on water)Fish and aquatic life can survive under ice
4 PolarityOxygen has 8 protons in its nucleus. Hydrogen only has 1 proton in its nucleus. Oxygen has much stronger attraction for electrons than hydrogenGreater probability of finding the shared electrons near the oxygen atom than the hydrogen atom (covalent bonding)
5 PolarityThus, the oxygen end of the molecule has a partial negative charge while the hydrogen end of the molecule has a partial positive charge.
6 Hydrogen BondsBecause of the partial charges, polar molecules such as water can attract each otherHydrogen bonds form between hydrogen atoms of one water molecule and oxygen atoms of another water molecule
7 Cohesion / Surface Tension Cohesion is an attraction between molecules of the same substance.Water is extremely cohesive due to H bonding.
8 Adhesion / Capillary Action Adhesion is an attraction between molecules of different substancesAdhesion is why water is drawn out of the roots of plants and up into its stems and leavesMeniscus of water occurs because the adhesion between water molecules and glass molecules is stronger than the cohesion between water molecules – called capillary action
9 High Specific HeatSpecific heat means the ability of a substance to raise 1 gram of body mass by 1°C.Water has high specific heat because a lot of energy is required to break H bondsImportant because water buffers organisms' internal temperatures
10 High Heat of Vaporization Water evaporates only at a high heat.It resists evaporating because H bonds must be broken to change states from liquid to gasAllows you to cool from sweating
11 High Heat of FusionAmount of energy needed to change state from solid to liquidAlso due to breaking H bondsResists melting. Keeps environment cool
12 SolutionsA mixture is composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed but not chemically combined (salt and pepper)Two types of mixtures can be made with water:SolutionsSuspensions
13 Water as a SolventAll of the components of a solution are evenly distributed throughout.In a salt-water solution, salt is the solute – the substance that is dissolvedWater is a solvent – the substance in which the solute dissolves.Water’s polarity gives it the ability to dissolve ionic compounds and polar molecules.Water is the greatest solvent on earth.
14 Solutions and Suspensions When a crystal of table salt is placed in warm water, sodium and chloride ions are attracted to the polar water molecules.Cl -Cl -Na+When an ionic compound such as sodium chloride is placed in water, water molecules surround and separate the positive and negative ions.Na+WaterWater
15 Solutions and Suspensions Ions break away from the crystal and are surrounded by water molecules.Cl -
16 Solutions and Suspensions The ions gradually become dispersed in the water, forming a solution.
17 Solutions and Suspensions Suspensions are mixtures of water and nondissolved materials.Blood that circulates through your body is composed of suspended cells in a liquid plasma matrix
18 Acids, Bases, and pHA water molecule can react to form hydrogen and hydroxide ions.Water is neutral because the number of positive hydrogen ions (H+) produced is equal to the number of negative hydroxide ions (OH-) produced.The pH scale indicates the concentration of H+ ions in solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
19 At a pH of 7, the concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions is equal. The pH ScaleAt a pH of 7, the concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions is equal.Pure water has a pH of 7.Sea waterHuman bloodPure waterMilkNormal rainfallThe concentration of H+ ions determines whether solutions are acidic or basic.
20 The lower the pH, the greater the acidity. The pH ScaleSolutions with a pH below 7 are called acidic because they have more H+ ions than OH- ions.The lower the pH, the greater the acidity.The concentration of H+ ions determines whether solutions are acidic or basic.Acid rainTomato juiceLemon juiceStomach acids
21 The higher the pH, the more basic the solution. The pH ScaleOven cleanerSolutions with a pH above 7 are called basic because they have more OH- ions than H+ ions.The higher the pH, the more basic the solution.BleachAmmonia solutionSoap
22 Acids An acid is any compound which forms H+ ions in solution. Acidic pH is below 7, therefore has more H+ ions that pure waterExamples include: acetic acid (vinegar), gastric juice (stomach acid), sulfuric acid (in car batteries)
23 Bases A base is a compound that produces OH- ions in solution. Basic, or alkaline, solutions contain fewer H+ ions that pure water, and have a pH above 7Basic examples include: baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), ammonia (NH3), lye (NaOH), milk of magnesia
25 BuffersThe pH of fluids within most cells of the human body is kept between 6.5 and 7.5If pH is lower or higher if will affect chemical reactions. Therefore, pH balance is an important part of homeostasis.Buffers are weak acids of bases that react with strong acids or bases to prevent sudden sharp changes in pH.