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PARASITES AND DEWORMING YOUR HORSES Control vs. Eradication Karen Kalck, DVM, DACVIM Equine Medicine University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center.

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Presentation on theme: "PARASITES AND DEWORMING YOUR HORSES Control vs. Eradication Karen Kalck, DVM, DACVIM Equine Medicine University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center."— Presentation transcript:

1 PARASITES AND DEWORMING YOUR HORSES Control vs. Eradication Karen Kalck, DVM, DACVIM Equine Medicine University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center

2 PLAN Introduction Signs of parasitism Types of parasites Dewormers Diagnostics Designing a deworming program

3 QUESTIONS 1.Raise your hand if you deworm your horse(s) every 2-3 months? 2.Every 4-6 months? 3.Once per year? 4.Whenever you remember to?

4 COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS What type of wormer should I use? When should I worm my horse? Should I rotate my wormers each time? Should I use the same wormer all year long? How often should I worm and when? What are fecal egg counts and do I need to have these done? How effective are feed through wormers? My horse is rubbing it's tail, is this because of worms?

5 COMMON PRACTICES Deworm 4 times per year Deworm 2 times per year, once after the first frost and once after the first hay cutting Deworm all year with the same dewormer Rotate your dewormer each time Only deworm if your horse is thin and not putting on weight

6 PARASITES vs. BACTERIA No replication of numbers within the host Life cycle No immunity to parasites

7 SIGNS OF PARASITISM None Lethargy Loss of appetite Dull, rough haircoat Tail rubbing and hair loss Loss of condition/weight Slow growth in young horses Pot belly Coughing, nasal discharge Diarrhea Colic Death

8 TYPES OF PARASITES Large strongyles Small strongyles Roundworms Tapeworms Pinworms Lungworms Bots Strongyloides

9 Roundworms (Ascarids) Large Strongyles Small Strongyles Pinworms Tapeworm

10 LIFECYCLE Eggs Manure of infected horse Ground Larvae Immature worms Stomach/intestines Adults Mature worms passed in feces Grazing eggs/larvae swallowed Larvae migrate out of intestines, into other tissues, and then return to intestine

11 STRONGYLES Also known as bloodworms, red worms Can cause anemia Damage colon Mesenteric arteritis (large only)

12 LARGE STRONGYLES

13 SMALL STRONGYLES

14 ROUNDWORMS Ascarids Young horses (<2 years) Large up to 15 inches in length! Do not suck blood Small intestinal obstruction Can migrate through the lung, causing damage and pneumonia

15 TAPEWORMS Affect the last part of the small intestine and cecum Can cause ileal impactions Eggs often not found in the feces

16 PINWORMS Females deposit eggs around anus in a cement- like mixture This dries and cracks, causing irritation Rat-tail appearance

17 BOTS Not worms, but fly larvae Female flies lay eggs on horse legs Horse ingests eggs Larvae hatch and migrate to the stomach

18 DIAGNOSTICS - Collection Collect fresh feces in ziplock bag Label with horse name and date Send/take to veterinary laboratory Herd Collect individual samples on same day

19 DIAGNOSTICS Fecal float Good screening test for all parasites Does not quantify Fecal egg count (FEC) Not to be used for screening Will quantify numbers of eggs per gram of feces Only for strongyles and roundworms

20 CONTROL VS. ERADICATION Must encourage anthelmintic-sensitive worms in population Do not want to become outnumbered by resistant worms

21 GOAL = CONTROL Keep FEC low Reduce transmission Reduce the development of drug resistance Have happy, healthy horses Kill adult parasites NO!!!

22 DEWORMERS Zimectrin Equimax Eqvalan Ivercare Rotation 1 Ivermectin Quest Moxidectin Strongid T Rotation 2 Pyrantel pamoate Quest plus Zimectrin gold Equimax Praziquantel Panacur Safe-guard Fenbendazole Anthelcide Oxibendazole

23 DEWORMERS Strongyles Tape- worms Round- worms Pin- worms Bots Ivermectin / Moxidectin XXX Pyrantel pamoate XXX Oxibendazole XXX Praziquantel X Fenbendazole XXX

24 DAILY DEWORMER Pyrantel tartrate (Strongid C) Does not resolve existing infections Not effective against tapeworms or bots Resistance! Only appropriate in very specific situations

25 DESIGNING A DEWORMING PROGRAM Do not deworm all horses every 8 weeks! High levels of drug resistance Biology of parasites has changed Different worm demographics from horse to horse

26 DESIGNING A DEWORMING PROGRAM New recommendations – strategic deworming Treat some horses more and others less Involves FEC Advantages Fewer deworming treatments Less drug resistance Better worm control

27 POSSIBLE DEWORMING PLAN First treatment in September Last treatment in March No further deworming until fall unless there is a very cool, wet summer

28 POSSIBLE DEWORMING PLAN Determine which anthelmintics are working in the herd September Egg counts on all horses Categorize horses contaminative potential <200 epg = low contaminators 200- 500 epg = moderate contaminators > 500 = high contaminators

29 HYPOTHETICAL DISTRIBUTION OF STRONGYLE EGG COUNTS IN A HORSE HERD NUMBER OF HORSES FECAL EGG COUNT (per gram of feces) LOW (50%) MODERATE (30%) HIGH (20%)

30 LOW CONTAMINATORS (< 200 epg) September Treat with Ivermectin-Praziquantel March Treat with Moxidectin-Praziquantel OR

31 MODERATE CONTAMINATORS (200-500 epg) September Treat with Ivermectin-Praziquantel November Treat with oxibendazole and/or pyrantel (together) March Treat with Moxidectin-Praziquantel OR +

32 HIGH CONTAMINATORS (> 500 epg) September Treat with Ivermectin-Praziquantel November Treat with oxibendazole and/or pyrantel (together) December Treat with Moxidectin March Treat with Moxidectin-Praziquantel OR +

33 DEWORMING: Strategic vs. Every 2 months Classification# of horses Number of doses/year SubtotalGrand total Low10220 54 Moderate6318 High4416 Every 2 mos.206120

34 DEWORMING IN FOALS/WEANLINGS Start at 2 months of age Deworm monthly Alternate pyrantel and ivermectin At 8 and 12 months give a product with praziquantel as well OR

35 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL Moisture Strongyle transmission occurs almost exclusively on pasture Stall and dry-lots are negligible Season (in TN) Summer lowest pasture infectivity Winter cool enough to promote larval persistence

36 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL Manure management Pasture rotation and management Avoid over-stocking Group horses by age Feeders

37 EQUINE WELLNESS PROGRAM UT Equine Hospital and Field Services Comprehensive health care program for horses Pleasure horse Performance horse Yearly health care needs in one package Packages are a 20% discount from individual pricing Eligible for additional discounts and benefits Sign-up beginning March 12th, 2011!

38 HORSE OWNERS CONFERENCE March 12 th, 2011 @ 8 am At UT – Hollingsworth auditorium Topics Wellness program Small pasture management Fescue toxicosis Foot care and diseases Use of common medications in horses Lameness examinations $28/person ($15 for additional family members) www.vet.utk.edu/continuing _ed

39 UTVMC OPEN HOUSE Saturday April 16, 2011 from 9 am – 4 pm Educational day for families Teddy Bear Clinic Canine Parade of Breeds Equine Parade of Breeds – including Amigo! Farm Animals Wildlife and Exotic Animals Physical Therapy for Animals www.vet.utk.edu/openhouse

40 QUESTIONS?? Thank you to Dr. Sharon Patton for providing information and pictures


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