10Unlike other livestock species, the testes of poultry are located within the abdominal cavity along the backbone.The epididymis, which still functions in sperm storage, is relatively small in relation to the testes.The vas deferens extend from the epididymis to the cloaca and are located on each side of the vertebral column.
11The vas deferens extend from the epididymis to the cloaca and are located on each side of the vertebral column.The vas deferens function in transportation of sperm and as sperm reservoirs.
12Cloaca – the lower end of the avian digestive tract that provides a passageway for products of the urinary, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
13Papillae – located at the end of the vas deferens and on the floor of the cloaca, the papillae emit semen into the cloaca of the female.Phallus – a rudimentary copulatory organ that becomes engorged with lymph during mating, which allows semen to be deposited onto the female’s everted cloacus; the phallus is more developed in ducks and geese.`
14Androgen – the male sex hormone produced by the testes. Functions of androgen include:Directing sexual activity and the production of sperm,Controlling secondary sexual characteristics of the male, andInfluencing social rank or “peck order.”
15Secondary sexual characteristics of include comb growth, crowing or gobbling, spur development, and male feathering.
16Female Reproductive System in Poultry The functional parts of the female poultry reproductive tract includes one ovary, an oviduct, and the cloaca.
18Mature female poultry have only one functional ovary; the right ovary and oviduct degenerate and cease functioning before the bird reaches sexual maturity.The ovary appears as a cluster of tiny, gray balls that are the oocytes.
19At maturity, the ovary contains up to 4,000 tiny oocytes from which ovum may develop over time. An ovum develops by collecting lipid particles from the blood to form the yolk.
20The yolk contains fat for energy and some protein and other nutrients needed by the developing embryo, as well as, a small white dot called the blastodisc that contains the genetic information supplied by the female.
21When mature, the yolk is released by the follicle and engulfed by the infundibulum. The oviduct is about 25 inches long and consists of five parts: the infundibulum, the magnum, the isthmus, the uterus, and the vagina.
22Infundibulum – funnel-like part of the oviduct that receives the yolk and is the site of fertilization.Magnum – second part of the oviduct that secretes the thick white or albumen.Isthmus – third part of the oviduct that adds the two shell membranes.
23Uterus – the fourth part of the oviduct that secretes the thin white, the shell, and the shell pigment.Vagina – the last part of the oviduct that holds the egg until it is laid.
24From the oviduct, the egg passes to the cloaca and then out of the body through the vent at the time of laying.
25In addition to producing ova, the ovary produces the female sex hormone, estrogen, and the hormone androgen.The androgen hormone stimulates comb growth and works with other hormones in egg production.
27In poultry, the functions of estrogen include: stimulating the growth of the oviduct,increasing the size of the cloaca during egg laying,modifying feather shape and pigmentation of the female, andincreasing the level of fat, phosphorus, and calcium in the blood.
28Rooster D. Describe the poultry reproductive system Testicles Vas deferensCloaca
29Testicles: Produce sperm Vas Deferens: Carries seminal fluid and sperm from testicles to cloacaPapilla: The organ in the wall of the cloaca that places the sperm inside the female’s reproductive tract29
31Ovary: Produces the ovum Infundibulum: Receives yolk from ovary, where sperm is stored, and fertilization takes placeMagnum: Secretes the thick white of the egg3 HoursIsthmus: 2 shell membranes are placed around the yolk and thick white1 ¼ HoursUterus: Thin white and outer shell are added to the egg20 HoursVagina: Completed egg is stored for a short time til laidTotal: Hours
322 Magnum 5 Vagina (with egg inside) 3 Isthmus 1 Infundibulum 4 Uterus2 Magnum 5 Vagina (with egg inside)3 Isthmus32
33Egg Processing Video Yolk Membrane Germinal Disc Yolk Air Cell Thick WhiteOuter ShellThick White MembraneOuter Shell MembraneThin White33
34Compare Mammalian and Poultry Reproduction 2 functioning ovaries2 ovaries, but only LEFT ovary functionsSperm cells are only viable for a short time after depositing into the femaleSperm cells live for atleast 6 days…and as long as days!Testicles are inside the scrotum on the OUTSIDE of bodyTesticles are INSIDE the body cavitySeparate exits for the urinary, digestive, and reproductive tractsONE exit from the body (vent)34
35E. Describe environmental requirements to hatch chicken eggs Natural:Hen lays eggs (1 per day) over period of several daysWhen she has an adequate nest, she begins to lay on them to keep them warmAfter 21 days, the eggs hatchA hen who is laying on her eggs is referred to as “broody”35
36E. Describe environmental requirements to hatch chicken eggs Artificial Incubation:Hen lays eggs and they are placed in an incubatorIncubator keeps eggs at proper temperature and humidity-Temperature: degrees-Humidity: 60%Eggs are turned 2 times daily to prevent embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell36
37E. Describe environmental requirements to hatch chicken eggs 37
38F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade. Grading Exterior Quality:1-Cleanliness- Shell should be free of debris or organic matter2- Shape-small end and large end. Not round or oblong3- Soundness-No Cracks38
39F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade. Grading Interior Quality:1- Air Cell2- Viscosity of Albumen(white)3- Check for abnormalities-Blood/Meat Spots-Cracks or leaks in shell39
40F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade. Egg Quality Grades:AA A B1/8 inch (Dime)3/16 inch (Nickel)3/8 inch (Quarter)40
41AA A B Albumen Viscosity 1-Hold egg up to light F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade.Albumen Viscosity1-Hold egg up to light2- Twist egg rapidly and watch to see how much the yoke moves aroundEgg Quality Grades:AA A BSome movementLots of movementLittle movement41
42F. Candle eggs to determine their interior and exterior quality grade. LossAny of the following would result in the egg being graded as a “loss”-Blood/Meat Spots-Cracks or leaks in shell42
4310th day - 50% ability19th day - 15% abilitySperm viability
44after yolk is fertilized it moves through the tract where the rest of the egg is added egg is laid - embryo grows inside the shellProcess
45keeping eggs at the right temperature and humidity for hatching hen does this by sitting on the eggsIncubation
46Incubation commercial hatcheries use mechanical incubators incubation of chickens is 21 daysIncubation
47Incubation temperature 102 - 103 F. RH - (relative humidity) 60% for the first 18 daysRH 70% for the last 3 daysIncubation
48Incubation eggs are turned twice daily for the first 15 days keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shellProvide a small amount of oxygenIncubation
49Oviduct has five parts Funnel - receives the yolk from the ovary sperm cells received from the rooster are stored hereOviduct
50Magnum secretes the thick white of the egg It takes three hours for the thick white to be placed around the yolk in the magnumMagnum
51Isthmus the yolk and thick white then moves to the Isthmus 2 shell membranes are addedIt takes 1 1/4 hoursIsthmus
52Uterus thin white and outer shell are added to the egg in the uterus egg remains in the uterus about 20 hoursUterus
53Vagina after the egg is completed it moves to the vagina stays in the vagina for a short time and is then expelled from the hens bodyVagina
54It takes 25-27 hours for a chicken to produce one egg
55Ovary In the chicken only the left ovary and oviduct function the ova produced in the ovary develop into egg yolksOvary
56Reproductive Failures general physical condition of animalhas an effect on the agility to reproduceReproductive Failures
57Reproductive Failures too fat or too thin may not become pregnantproper nutrition and exercise can help prevent thisReproductive Failures
58Reproductive Failures animals in poor physical condition can have trouble giving birthReproductive Failures
59Infections affect reproductive organs some may prevent pregnancy others may cause a spontaneous abortion - miscarriageInfections
60if animal does become pregnant it may deliver a weak animal which may not live Infections
61of uterusalmost always fatal to embryo or fetusInfection
62sexual behavior of animals is regulated by the secretion of hormones when not properly secreted the animal may not be able to reproduceHormones
63sometimes animals are treated with injected hormones
64Cyst swelling containing fluid or semi solid substance may cause reproduction or breeding problemsmay be surgically removed depending on the value of the animalCyst