2Reproductive Terms Parturition Gestation Estrus Castration The process of giving birthGestationThe time an animal is pregnantEstrusThe time a female animal is receptive to breedingCastrationThe process of removing a male animal’s testicles
3Parturition The signs of approaching parturition can be observed. Females begin to exhibit nesting behaviorThey becomes restless and attempt to separate from the herd or flock.
41st stage 2nd stage 3rd stage Dilation of cervix and entry of fetus into the cervix2nd stageCompletes the birth of an animal through strong uterine contractions3rd stageExpulsion of afterbirth (placenta) from the uterus.If the placenta is retained in can interfere with future reproduction.
5Gestation Length varies from 174 days for a sow to 337 days for a mare The new animal is known as an embryo while the organs are forming.After differentiation and until birth the young animal is a fetus.
6Estrus Period of heat or estrus are triggered by the hormone estrogen. Ovulation takes place during estrus for ewe, sow, mare and some companion animals.The cat only ovulates after mating.The number of eggs ovulated varies.Cows and mares typically ovulates one egg.Dogs, horses, and cats may ovulates several eggs (15 or more)
7Castration Makes the male animals easier to handle Methods: Elastrator Stretches a specially made rubber band over the scrotum which will cut off circulation.Knife or scalpelWith this method bleeding must be stopped and flies controlledBudizzo clampsNo BleedingClamp crushes and severs the cords and blood vessels going to the testicles.
24Epididymis Long coiled tube connected to each testicle Stores sperm while they mature
25Vas deferens Seminal vesicles Prostrate gland Cowper’s gland Tube that connect the epididymis to urethraSeminal vesiclesOpen to urethraProstrate glandNear the urethra and bladderCowper’s glandNear urethra
26Penis Covered by the sheath Part that penetrates the female at breedingDeposits semen in female livestockPapilla serve this function in poultry
27Accessory male reproductive glands Produce fluids to protect and carry the spermCowper’s glandProstrate glandSeminal vesicles
31Papilla is the organ in male poultry’s cloaca wall that puts the sperm in the hen’s reproductive tract.
32Poultry Reproductive System The major difference between livestock and poultry reproductive systems is that the embryo of livestock develops inside the female’s body and the poultry embryo develops outside the body.
44Functions of Poultry Reproductive System OvaryProduces ova or yolks and hormonesInfundidbulumThe place where fertilization takes placeMagnumSecretes the thick egg white or albumenIsthmusAdds the two shell membrane
45UterusSecretes the thin white, the shell, and the shell pigmentVaginaHolds the egg until it is laidOviductServes several functions because it is made up of several partsInfundidbulumMagnumIsthmus
46Incubation time for chickens is 21 days CloacaEgg passes throughSemen is deposited here during breedingVentPlace where eggs pass out of the hen’s bodyThe outside openingEggFunction is reproduction but is eaten as food by humans and wild animalsIncubation time for chickens is 21 daysIncubation time for ducks and turkeys is 28 days
47Types of Breeding Systems Purebred BreedingMating a registered purebred male and female of the same breedAngus X Angus