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Animal Reproduction Animal Science. Functions of the Male System.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Reproduction Animal Science. Functions of the Male System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Reproduction Animal Science

2 Functions of the Male System

3 What is the function of the Male? n produce large numbers of live sex cells (spermatozoa) n contribute 1/2 chromosomes

4 What are the Male Reproductive Organs? n Testicles - produce spermatozoa & male hormone Testosterone n Scrotom - sack which carries testicles –functions as a heat regulator n Monorchid - one fertile testicle n Cryptorchid - both testes remain in body cavity (sterile) n Castration - removal of testicles –lack sex drive –gain weight quicker

5 What are the Male Reproductive Organs? n Epididymis - tube connects to testes n storage of spermatozoa (200 billion at a time) n spermatozoa mature as they migrate through n Vas Deferens - tube connects to epididymus –if removed, can't reproduce = vasectomy

6 What are the Male Reproductive Organs? n Urethra - begins at bladder and continues through penis n Sigmoid Flexure - "S" shape in urethra allows for extension of penis outside of body for reproduction

7 Accessory Sex Glands n prostate n two seminal vesicles n two cowpers glands

8 What is the function of the Accessory Sex Glands? n provide medium for transporting sperm n adds volume n provides nutrients n cleans & flushes urinary tract

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10 Reproduction in Males n After sexual maturity, sperm production is continuous n Testosterone is responsible for: –growth, development & activity of accessory glands –survival of spermatozoa –secondary sex characteristics:male voice, sex drive

11 Reproduction in Males n Semen - collective term for all fluid ejaculated n sperm and fluid from accessory glands

12 Reproduction in Females

13 What is the function of the female? n Contribute 1/2 chromosomes n Care for young in uterus and after birth until weaning

14 What are the Female Reproductive Organs? n Vulva - exterior portion of reproductive tract –provides visual signs of heat n Vagina - between vulva & cervix –Cows & Ewes: semen is deposited here –Mares & Sows: semen is deposited in the cervix

15 What are the Female Reproductive Organs? n Cervix - "Mouth of the womb –opening into uterus –at birth cervix stretches to allow baby to pass (most painful part) –during pregnancy cervix becomes blocked with a mucous plug to prevent infection

16 What are the Female Reproductive Organs? n Uterine Horns - two branches of uterus n Fallopian Tube - uterine horn becomes a small tube –lined with cilia which aid in egg migration

17 Ovaries n located at end of fallopian tubes n possesses large number of eggs in all stages of development n this is all the eggs she will ever have, unlike the males reproductive gametes n very few eggs reach maturity n if not fertilized, the egg is reabsorbed by the body

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19 Reproduction in Females n Farm animals reach sexual maturity at 4 months (sow) to 24 months (mare), then -Female comes in heat (estrus) -Egg released by ovary -Egg travels down tube until fertilized by sperm n Estrogen - female hormone which regulates estrus

20 What does "in heat" mean? n Heat is the time when a female is receptive to the male and will allow breeding to take place n Heat is actually divided into 4 phases of the cycle.

21 Estrous Cycle: *Proestrus: ovary is about to release an egg *Estrus: female receptivity *Metestrus: uterus prepares for pregnancy –fertilized egg attaches to uterus *Diestrus: longest period of cycle –inactive n Estrous Cycles stop after conception, and begin soon after Parturition (birth)

22 Females also show external signs of "Heat" n Aggressive behavior n Swelling and/or color change of vulva n Mucus Discharge

23 Conditions for Fertilization n Anatomy of Male & Female must be compatible n Female must be in Heat n Egg must be mature

24 Artificial Insemination

25 n Beef Terms n A Mature Male is called a: Bull Bull n A Mature Female is called a: Cow Cow n The act of Giving Birth is called: Calving Calving n Gestation = 283 days 283 days n A Castrated Male is called a: Steer Steer n An Immature Female is called a: Heifer Heifer

26 n What do you call a mature male hog? Boar Boar n What do you call a mature female hog? Sow Sow n What do you call the act of giving birth? Farrowing Farrowing n What do you call a castrated male hog? Barrow Barrow n What do you call an young female hog? Gilt Gilt n What is the gestation for hogs? 114 days or 3 months, 3 weeks, & 3 days 114 days or 3 months, 3 weeks, & 3 days

27 n Poultry Terms n What do you call a mature male? Rooster Rooster n What do you call a mature female? Hen Hen n What do you call a young female? Pullet Pullet n What do you call a castrated male? Capon Capon n Chickens Hatch n What is the incubation period? 21 days 21 days

28 n What do you call a mature male horse? Stallion Stallion n What do you call a mature female horse? Mare Mare n What do you call a castrated male horse? Gelding Gelding n What do you call a young horse? foal or colt foal or colt

29 n What do you call an immature female horse? Filly Filly n What do you call the act of giving birth for horses? Foaling Foaling n What is the gestation for a horse? 330 days 330 days

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