2Jefferson Takes Office: Jefferson felt that Washington and Adams acted too much like royalty.He developed a less formal style as President (Rode horses not carriages, Entertained at the White House).He tried to integrate Republican ideals into Federalist policies.He began paying off the National Debt, cut government spending, and did away with the Whiskey Tax.
3Rise of Supreme Court:Judiciary Act of 1801: Passed by Adams right before he leaves office (Last minute).Act created 16 new Federal Judges (All Federalists).Jefferson and Congress will repeal the act, doing away with the “Midnight Judges”.John Marshall: Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for 34 years who made the court a powerful independent branch of government.
4Marbury v. Madison: Supreme Court decision that strengthened the power of the Supreme Court. Found a section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional.Judicial Review: Gave the SC the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were Constitutional and to strike down laws that were not.
5Louisiana Purchase:Jefferson supported westward expansion (Believed all Americans should own land).1800: Napoleon Bonaparte (France) convinced Spain to give Louisiana back to France.Jefferson was worried about control of the Mississippi.1801: Jefferson orders Robert Livingston to block the deal and negotiate with France.
61801 – 1803: Negotiations were ineffective. 1803: Napoleon is in search of $$$ to fund his war. He will offer Territory to the U.S.Jefferson is unsure about the legality of purchasing land (It is not listed in Constitution).April 30, 1803: United States purchased Louisiana from France for $15 million.The purchase doubled the size of the nation and opened territory west of the Mississippi.Problem: Little was known about the territory (Land, People, and Resources).
7Lewis and Clark Expedition: Even before the purchase, Jefferson convinced Congress to fund a trip into the territory.Hopes: Find a Northwest Passage.February 1803: Congress Approved the expedition.Party was led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.
8May 4, 1804: The Corps of Discovery headed up the Missouri River. Sacagawea (Shoshone Indian) joined up with the group and served as an interpreter and guide.Goal: Get a better understanding of the territory.Results: Increased our knowledge of the west and gave the U.S. a land claim called Oregon Territory.
9Western Exploration:1805: Zebulon Pike explored much of the upper Mississippi, Arkansas, and Colorado Rivers.Gave the 1st detailed description of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains.
10Essex Junto:While the south and west were gaining political strength, many NE Federalists felt their region was loosing influence.Some Federalists wanted NE to leave the Union.They attempted to convince Aaron Burr (Vice President) to run for Governor of NY.Outcome: July 11, 1804: Alexander Hamilton publicly criticized Burr.Results: Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton refuses to shoot and is killed by Burr.1807: Burr accused of plotting to create a new country in Western United States.
11International Tension: Jefferson focused on keeping us out of war with France and GB.Policy of Impressment: British policy which made kidnapping legal and forced military service on sailors who were captured.1807: The British warship Leopard stopped the U.S. Chesapeake to search for British deserters.Chesapeake refused and 3 Americans were killed.Reaction: Jefferson placed a trade embargo on Europe (Hurt the U.S.).
13Decision for War:1808: Presidential candidate James Madison defeated Charles Pinckney becoming the 4th President.He took office in the midst of international tension with Great Britain.
14Economic Pressures: Madison wanted to avoid war with Europe. Problems with trade caused tension (Impressment).Non Intercourse Act: Passed by Congress, it banned trade with France and England and gave Madison authority to open trade with whichever country removed restrictions first.
15Macon’s Bill Number Two: Stated that if either nation dropped the trade restrictions on U.S., then we would stop importing goods from the other nation.France: Napoleon lifts U.S. restrictions.1811: U.S. placed a Non Importation Act on GB.June 1812: GB ended all restrictions on American Trade.
16Declaration of War: June 1812: Congress contemplates war. War Hawks: Nickname for those that favored war with GB.Why: (2 Reasons):They felt that trade restriction hurt farmers and planters.They blamed GB with clashes between Western settlers and Native Americans.
17Native Disputes:Tecumseh: Leader of the Shawnee who wants tribes to unite to protect their lands.William Henry Harrison: Governor of Indiana Territory who will use force against Tecumseh.Battle of Tippecanoe: Clash between settlers and natives with no clear victor, but it shattered natives confidence.Results:Tecumseh and other natives fled to British Canada.June 1812: Madison asks Congress to declare war against GB (Northeast was against the war).
18Invasion of Canada:June 1812: The U.S. was not ready to fight. Fewer than 7,000 troops, 16 Naval ships, and little supplies.NY and NE citizens referred to the war as “Mr. Madison’s War.NE bankers refused to loan money to the government (National Banks charter ran out , 1811).
19Early Fighting:U.S. military leaders planned to attack Canada from 3 directions (Detroit, Niagara Falls, and up the Hudson River).All 3 attacks failed.September 1813: Commander Oliver Perry secretly arranged for the construction of an American fleet on Lake Erie.The fleet was victorious giving the U.S. control of Lake Erie.U.S. was not able to follow up on the victory.Late 1813: U.S. had not conquered an British Territory.
20War Ends:1814: GB’s war with France ends and they could now focus on War of 1812.British Strategy (3 Parts):Attack U.S. cities along the coast.Capture NYC and cut off NE from the rest of the country.Seize New Orleans and control the Mississippi River.
21British Attack: Aug 1814: British land near Washington. They captured the U.S. capital with little resistance and burn both the White House and the Capital (Madison fled).September 1814: British try but fail to capture Baltimore. Fort McHenry attacked, Francis Scott Key writes the Star Spangled Banner.
22American Victories:Battle of Lake Champlain (Sept 1814): American naval forces defeat the British. 15,000 troops retreated to Montreal.Battle of New Orleans (Jan 1815): Decisive U.S. victory which makes General Andrew Jackson a national hero (Fought after peace treaty).After the battle, strong feeling of patriotism swept the nation (Downfall of the Federalists).Treaty of Ghent: Signed on Dec 24th 1814, it officially ended the war.Results:Restored prewar boundaries (no territory exchanged).Increased the nations prestige (Stood with British forces again).Generated national unity and patriotic feelings.