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Understanding Photosynthesis Chapter 8 Academic Biology

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Photosynthesis Chapter 8 Academic Biology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Photosynthesis Chapter 8 Academic Biology

2 Did you know ?

3 Research into PHOTOSYNTHESIS began centuries ago with this simple question: When a tiny seed grows into a huge plant, where does all the new plant come from?

4 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT Then he planted the seedling in the pot and watered it regularly. At the end of 5 years the _____________ __________about 75 kg, but the mass of the _________ was almost ________________. He decided the increase in plant had to come from the ________… that was the only thing he had added! In a Belgian physician ___________________ determined the mass of a pot of dry soil and a small seedling. Jan Van Helmont seedling had gained soil unchanged WATER

5 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT Plants use _______ and ______ dioxide to make ___________________ Van Helmont didnt realize the major contribution to the mass of his tree was something he couldnt see… __________________ from the air. carbon dioxide watercarbon Carbohydrates

6 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT An English minister, _________________________, discovered that a flame burning in a closed jar would die out. If he placed a __________ in the jar and allowed a few days to pass, the candle could be lit again. The plant produced something required for burning that the candle used up We now know it was …____________ OXYGEN Joseph Priestley live plant

7 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT 1779 Dutch scientist ________________________ showed Priestleys plant experiment only worked if the plant was exposed to _________________ ! Jan Ingenhousz light

8 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT American chemist ________________________ received the Nobel prize for figuring out the chemical _______________ used by plants to make sugar Melvin Calvin pathway

9 THE BIG PICTURE These experiments led to work by later scientists who finally discovered that in the presence of light, plants transform CO 2 and water into carbohydrates and release oxygen. _____________ + ____________ _______________ + ____________ Carbon dioxide WATERSugars Oxygen 6 CO 2 _____________ + ____________ _______________ + ____________ 6 H 2 OC 6 H 12 O 6 6 O 2

10 In addition to water and carbon dioxide, __________________ and __________________ are needed for photosynthesis to happen. chlorophyll light energy

11 ____________________ involves a complex series of chemical reactions, in which the product of one reaction is _____________ by the next reaction. Photosynthesis consumed Reaction 1 Product X Reaction 2 Product Y A series of reactions linked in this way is referred to as a __________________________ biochemical pathway

12 See a video about PHOTOSYNTHESIS 8B

13 PHOTOSYNTHESIS LIGHT ENERGY 6CO 2 + 6H 2 OC 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

14 Did you know ?

15

16 Visible light is made up of many different _______________of light Your eyes see different sizes of waves as different ___________ wavelengths colors

17 Many people think that plants are green because they absorb and use green light in photosynthesis, BUT.... Myth: Image from:

18 BUT… We see reflected light Light wavelengths that are ___________ off of objects bounce back to our eyes. That is the ___________ we see Image modified from: REFLECTED COLOR

19 This book looks BLUE because the dye in this cover _______________ of the wavelengths of light _________ blue. _______ light is ____________ to your eyes and it looks BLUE except absorbs ALL BLUE reflected

20 The dye in this T shirt absorbs all of the colors __________________________ Red wavelengths are _________________ to your eyes and the shirt looks RED except red reflected GO CATS!

21 Objects look BLACK because black dye ________________ of the wavelengths of light. When wavelengths are absorbed so is the_____________ of the wave. That is why wearing a black T-shirt in the summer feels warmer than wearing a white t-shirt. absorbs ALL ENERGY

22 The dye in white objects _____________ of the wavelengths of light. _______ energy is ABSORBED so wearing white clothing is cooler. REFLECTS ALL LITTLE

23 Which wavelengths of light are these Flowers REFLECTING? Images by: VanderWal yellow Purple & yellow

24 green Image by: VanderWal Which wavelengths of light do these LEAVES reflect? So green leaves ____________ the green wavelength of light. REFLECT

25 Plants gather the suns energy with light absorbing molecules called ___________. pigments By: VanderWal

26 The main energy absorbing molecule in green plants is ___________________ _________________ are plant pigments too. (These look yellow, orange, and red) CAROTENOIDS CHLOROPHYLL

27 GREEN leaves have BOTH chlorophyll AND carotenoids __________________ but the huge amount of chlorophyll ______ the other colors and leaves usually look green ALL THE TIME hides

28 In ______, chlorophyll production slows as the trees shut down and photosynthesis stops for winter. FALL

29 Then we can see the carotinoid colors that are usually _______ by chlorophyll HIDDEN

30 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. There are two types of chlorophyll __________________ & ___________________ Chlorophyll a absorbs the _____ & ________ wavelengths best. It absorbs very little ______ light. Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b red violet Blue

31 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. There are two types of chlorophyll __________________ & ___________________ Chlorophyll b absorbs some ______light and even more _________ light. Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b red Blue-violet

32 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. NEITHER KIND OF CHLOROPHYLL IS VERY GOOD AT ABSORBING _________ LIGHT! GREEN

33 Thats why leaves LOOK GREEN….. Chlorophyll doesnt absorb…. it ___________ GREEN light! REFLECTS

34 Thats why plant have other pigments (like carotenoids). They help _________ some wavelengths chlorophyll _______; so the plant can __________ of the suns energy. USE MORE ABSORB DOESNT

35 Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. SO WHAT WAVELENGTHS ARE BEST FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS? THE ONES CHLOROPHYLL ABSORBS THE BEST ________ and _______________ red Blue-violet

36 Pearson Education Inc, Pusblishing as Pearson Prentice Hall Because light is a form of ___________, any molecule that absorbs light also ___________the energy from the light. ENERGY ABSORBS

37 ENERGY & ELECTRONS When chlorophyll absorbs light, the energy is transferred to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule. HIGH ENERGY ____________ make photosynthesis work! ELECTRONS

38 Any Questions ?

39 Where does Photosynthesis happen ?

40 PHOTOSYNTHESIS HAPPENS IN CHLOROPLASTS = sac-like photosynthetic = stack of thylakoids membranes inside chloroplast THYLAKOIDS GRANUM (pl. grana) Image from BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

41 SPACES THYLAKOID SPACE STROMA cytoplasm Gel-filled space Inside the thylakoid sac Gel-filled space inside chloroplast surrounding thylakoid sac Gel-filled space OUTSIDE chloroplast but inside the cell membrane

42 PHOTOSYNTHESIS HAPPENS IN CHLOROPLASTS Proteins that are part of the thylakoid membrane organize ________________________________ into clusters called _____________________ PHOTOSYSTEMS Light absorbing PIGMENTS

43 LIVING THINGS NEED ENERGY CARRIERS Molecule that carries = _______ Molecule that carries HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS = ___________ ATP NADP + Images by Riedell

44 ________ + _____ + _____ ____________ HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS require a special carrier, too ____________ is one of the carriers that cells use to transport high energy electrons. NADP + 2 e - H+H+ _______= nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate Frying pan image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing©2006

45 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction Light-Independent Reactions Light & Water Oxygen ATP NADPH

46 LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTIONS PHOTOSYSTEM II ATP SYNTHASE PHOTOSYSTEM I ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM INSIDE THYLAKOID SPACE OUTSIDE THYLAKOID IN STROMA Image modified from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

47 PHOTOSYSTEM II It was discovered and named 1st PHOTOSYSTEM I WHY DOES PHOTOSYSTEM II COME BEFORE PHOTOSYSTEM I? Image modified from: Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall

48 See a video clip about the LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTION (Part 2) 8D

49 Molecules move automatically from where theres high [ ] to where theres low [ ] Animatioin from: REMEMBER

50 Diffusion happens anytime there is a difference in concentration in one place compared to another = ________________________ CONCENTRATION GRADIENT

51 REMEMBER …as long as membrane will let molecule through Diffusion can happen across membranes TOO

52 LIGHT-DEPENDENT REACTIONS See an animation about the ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN SEE A MOVIE ATP SYNTHASE IN ACTION /giannini/flashanimat/metab olism/atpsyn1.sw e/giannini/flashanimat/meta bolism/photosynthesis.swf

53 LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION Requires ______________ Molecules are part of ________________ Made up of __________________ connected by ______________________ & ___________________ Uses light energy to change ADP + P _______ NADP + + 2e - + H + _________ Breaks apart ______ molecules and releases _____________ LIGHT ATP THYLAKOID membranes PHOTOSYSTEMS II & I ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN NADPH H20H20 oxygen ATP SYNTHASE

54 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction Light-Independent Reactions CALVIN CYCLE Light & Water Oxygen ATP NADPH Carbon Dioxide C 6 H 12 O 6

55 PHOTOSYNTHESIS OVERVIEW Pearson Education Inc; Publishing as Prentice Hall

56 CO 2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Calvin Cycle See Calvin cycle animation

57 CALVIN CYCLE (also called _________________________) ____________ require ____________ Happens in _________ between thylakoids NADPH donates _______________ ATP donates _________________ CO 2 donates ______________ to make __________ LIGHT LIGHT INDEPENDENT ENERGY STROMA Hydrogen + electrons Carbon & oxygen GLUCOSE DOES NOT

58 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis ____________________ Water is one of the raw materials needed, so A shortage of water can ________________ photosynthesis AMOUNT OF WATER Desert plants and conifers that live in dry conditions have a waxy coating on their leaves to prevent water loss. slow or stop

59 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis Photosynthesis enzymes function best between 0° C - 35° C At temperatures above or below this range, photosynthesis will slow or stop Conifers in winter may carry out photosynthesis only occasionally TEMPERATURE

60 Factors that Affect Photosynthesis ____________________ More light increases rate of photosynthesis up to a certain level until plant reaches its maximum rate of photosynthesis LIGHT INTENSITY

61 THE BIG PICTURE PHOTOSYNTHESIS provides the _____________ we breathe and the __________ heterotrophs (like us) consume to survive _____________ + ____________ _______________ + ____________ Carbon dioxide WATER Sugars Oxygen OXYGEN sugars

62 Photosynthesis includes of take place in takes place in uses to produce use Concept Map

63 Photosynthesis includes of take place in takes place in uses to produce use Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle Thylakoid membranes StromaNADPH ATP Energy from sunlight ATPNADPHO2O2 Chloroplasts High-energy sugars Section 8-3 Concept Map


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