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Presentation on theme: "REACTIONS of PHOTOSYNTHESIS 8-2"— Presentation transcript:


2 REMEMBER Cycle 1

3 Atoms are the basic unit of MATTER: A NUCLEUS contains ______________ orbit nucleus in ENERGY LEVELS PROTONS (+) NEUTRONS ELECTRONS ( - )

4 Atoms differ in numbers of protons, neutrons, & electrons Image from:

5 Atoms that have gained or lost electrons have an electric charge and are called __________ They are written with a + or – next to their symbol IONS Na + Cl -

6 1.____________ 2.____________ 3.____________ 4.____________ 5.____________ 6.____________ Atoms/ions important for living things Carbon - C Oxygen - O Hydrogen - H Nitrogen - N Sulfur - S Phosphorus - P

7 ATOMS CAN JOIN TOGETHER TO MAKE MOLECULES Ex: Joining 2 HYDROGEN atoms with 1 OXYGEN atom makes ________ WATER Image by: Riedell A chemical formula tells what kind of molecules and how many are in a molecule EX: ________ H2OH2O

8 ________________ = kind of chemical reaction in which molecules are produced by joining smaller molecules together 2 H 2 + O 2 → 2 H 2 0 SYNTHESIS 2 water molecules Hydrogen molecule oxygen molecule

9 An chemical equation tells what happens in a chemical reaction when molecules interact. NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H 2 0 ______________ _______________ Molecules that react Molecules that are produced products → reactants

10 Chemical reactions need help to get started EX: A fire needs a match to get it started. IT’S LIKE PUSHING A SNOWBALL UP A HILL... Once you get it up there, it can roll down by itself

11 In living systems ___________ called __________ help chemical reactions happen. Image from: SEE ANIMATION of AMYLASE ENZYMES PROTEINS

12 PROTEINS ACT AS ENZYMES ENZYMES fit together with _____________ (reactants) like a lock and key to form an ____________________________. __________are released and enzyme is free to help again SUBSTRATES ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX PRODUCTS

13 Many enzyme NAMES end in _____ and the beginning of the name tells what it does DNA Polymerase= “polymerizes” joins monomers to make DNA Protease= breaks down proteins ATP synthase= synthesizes ATP -ASE

14 Research into PHOTOSYNTHESIS began centuries ago with this simple question: When a tiny seed grows into a huge plant, where does all the “new plant” come from?

15 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT Then he planted the seedling in the pot and watered it regularly. At the end of 5 years the _____________ __________about 75 kg, but the mass of the _________ was almost ________________. He decided the “increase in plant” had to come from the ________… that was the only thing he had added! In a Belgian physician ___________________ determined the mass of a pot of dry soil and a small seedling. Jan van Helmont seedling had gained soil unchanged WATER

16 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT Plants use _______ and ______ dioxide to make ___________________ Van Helmont didn’t realize the major contribution to the mass of his tree was something he couldn’t see… __________________ from the air. carbon dioxide watercarbon Carbohydrates

17 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT An English minister, _________________________, discovered that a flame burning in a closed jar would die out. If he placed a __________ in the jar and allowed a few days to pass, the candle could be lit again. The plant produced something “required for burning” that the candle used up We now know it was …____________ OXYGEN Joseph Priestley live plant

18 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT Dutch scientist ________________________ showed Priestley’s plant experiment only worked if the plant was exposed to _________________ ! Jan Ingenhousz light

19 EXPERIMENTS TO FIND OUT American chemist ________________________ received the Nobel prize for figuring out the chemical _______________ used by plants to make sugar Melvin Calvin pathway

20 THE BIG PICTURE These experiments led to work by later scientists who finally discovered that in the presence of light, plants transform CO 2 and water into carbohydrates and release oxygen. _____________ + ____________ _______________ + ____________ Carbon dioxide WATERSugars Oxygen 6 CO 2 _____________ + ____________ _______________ + ____________ 6 H 2 OC 6 H 12 O 6 6 O 2 →

21 In addition to water and carbon dioxide, __________________ and __________________ are needed for photosynthesis to happen. chlorophyll light energy

22 ____________________ involves a complex series of chemical reactions, in which the product of one reaction is _____________ by the next reaction. Photosynthesis consumed Reaction 1 →Product → X Reaction 2 → Product Y A series of reactions linked in this way is referred to as a __________________________ biochemical pathway

23 See a video about PHOTOSYNTHESIS 8B

24 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Light-Dependent Reaction Light-Independent Reactions Light & Water oxygen ATP NADPH Carbon Dioxide (CH 2 O) n Calvin Cycle

25 PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Reactants & Products LIGHT ENERGY 6CO 2 + 6H 2 OSUGAR + 6O 2


27 Visible light is made up of many different _______________of light Your eyes “see” different sizes of waves as different ___________ wavelengths colors

28 Many people think that plants are green because they absorb and use green light in photosynthesis, BUT.... Myth: Image from:

29 BUT… We “see” reflected light Light wavelengths that are ___________ off of objects bounce back to our eyes. That is the ___________ we “see” Image modified from: REFLECTED COLOR

30 This book “looks BLUE” because the dye in this cover _______________ of the wavelengths of light _________ blue. _______ light is ____________ to your eyes and it looks BLUE except absorbs ALL BLUE reflected

31 The dye in this T shirt absorbs all of the colors __________________________ Red wavelengths are _________________ to your eyes and the shirt looks RED except red reflected GO CATS!

32 Objects “look BLACK” because black dye ________________ of the wavelengths of light. When wavelengths are absorbed so is the_____________ of the wave. That is why wearing a black T-shirt in the summer feels warmer than wearing a white t-shirt. absorbs ALL ENERGY

33 The dye in white objects _____________ of the wavelengths of light. _______ energy is ABSORBED so wearing white clothing is “cooler”. REFLECTS ALL LITTLE

34 Which wavelengths of light are these Flowers REFLECTING? Images by: VanderWal yellowPurple & yellow

35 green Image by: VanderWal Which wavelengths of light do these LEAVES reflect? So green leaves ____________ the green wavelength of light. REFLECT

36 Plants gather the sun’s energy with light absorbing molecules called ___________. pigments By: VanderWal

37 The main energy absorbing molecule in green plants is ___________________ _________________ are plant pigments too. (These look yellow, orange, and red) CAROTENOIDS CHLOROPHYLL

38 GREEN leaves have BOTH chlorophyll AND carotenoids __________________ but the huge amount of chlorophyll ______ the other colors and leaves usually look green ALL THE TIME hides

39 In ______, chlorophyll production slows as the trees shut down and photosynthesis stops for winter. FALL

40 Then we can see the carotinoid colors that are usually _______ by chlorophyll HIDDEN

41 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. There are two types of chlorophyll __________________ & ___________________ Chlorophyll a absorbs the _____ & ________ wavelengths best. It absorbs very little ______ light. Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b red violet Blue

42 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. There are two types of chlorophyll __________________ & ___________________ Chlorophyll b absorbs some ______light and even more _________ light. Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b red Blue-violet

43 red Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. NEITHER KIND OF CHLOROPHYLL IS VERY GOOD AT ABSORBING _________ LIGHT! GREEN

44 That’s why leaves LOOK GREEN….. Chlorophyll doesn’t absorb…. it ___________ GREEN light! REFLECTS

45 That’s why plant have other pigments (like carotenoids). They help _________ some wavelengths chlorophyll _______; so the plant can __________ of the sun’s energy. USE MORE ABSORB DOESN’T

46 Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b © Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing asPearson Prentice-Hall. All rights reserved. SO WHAT WAVELENGTHS ARE BEST FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS? THE ONES CHLOROPHYLL ABSORBS THE BEST ________ and _______________ red Blue-violet

47 Pearson Education Inc, Pusblishing as Pearson Prentice Hall Because light is a form of ___________, any molecule that absorbs light also ___________the energy from the light. ENERGY ABSORBS

48 ENERGY & ELECTRONS When chlorophyll absorbs light, the energy is transferred to electrons in the chlorophyll molecule. HIGH ENERGY ____________ make photosynthesis work! ELECTRONS


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