Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off the ringer. The Digital Revolution.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off the ringer. The Digital Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off the ringer. The Digital Revolution Integrated Circuits and Processing Storage Input, Output, and Expansion Selecting and Purchasing a Computer Hardware Designed to Meet the Need Chapter 2

2 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > The Value of Going Digital Anything that can be expressed through words, numbers, sounds, pictures, and even scents can be digitized.even scents Digital information is easy to manipulate. Digital information is easy to copy and transfer. Digital information is long lasting. Digitization standardizes the format of all different types of data and information leading to…

3 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Digital Convergence Digital convergence is the trend to merge multiple digital services into one device.

4 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Integrated Circuits and Processing Key Terms Consider PC Choices Transistor Integrated circuit Central Processing Unit (CPU) Motherboard Arithmetic/logic unit Control unit Random Access Memory (RAM) The machine cycle Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Gigaflop Moores Law

5 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Lets go shopping! CompUSA Sony Apple In order to shop intelligently, you must understand the basics about processors, storage, input/output, and peripherals.

6 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Key Components Processor Memory Storage OS Video Removable Storage Networking Security

7 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Computer Hardware Evolution A Binary System allows the use of switches to represent states. This in turn makes computing possible. Input Storage Processing Output

8 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Charles Babage Computer Computers used different things as digital switches: Actual Switches Relays Vacuum tubes Transistors Eniac: The first general purpose computer Computer Hardware Evolution

9 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Transistor A transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

10 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Transistor A transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

11 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Transistor A transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

12 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Integrated Circuit An Integrated Circuit (chip) combines transistors and capacitors in a tiny module to store and process bits and bytes in todays digital electronic devices.

13 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > The Central Processing Unit The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a group of integrated circuits that work together to perform the processing in a computer system.

14 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Microprocessor Todays technology allows us to pack all the CPU in a small integrated circuit called a Microprocessor. The 8080 Microprocessor The Rabbit 4000

15 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > The Motherboard The motherboard is the primary circuit board of a computing device that houses the digital devices circuitry including the microprocessor and memory.

16 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Processing Processing is the act of manipulating data as defined by a set of instructions. The instruction set a set of predefined instructions that the CPU can understand.

17 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > CPU Components Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): contains the circuitry to carry out the instructions in the processors instruction set. Control Unit: sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data throughout the system. Registers: hold the data and instructions currently being processed (~300 bytes).

18 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Latest Technology Multicore technology refers to housing more than one CPU on a chip. Dual-core processors and quad-core processors use two and four CPUs on one chip that work together to provide twice and four times the speed of traditional single-core chips.

19 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Processing The microprocessor accesses instructions stored in memory over the system bus. Random Access Memory (RAM) is temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.

20 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > System Bus The system bus connects the CPU to the chipset, and through it to RAM and other components on the motherboard.

21 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Processing – The Machine Cycle The four stages of the machine cycle are (1) fetch the instruction from memory, (2) decode and (3) execute the instruction, then (4) store the results.

22 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > The Machine Cycle Examples ipod Fetch Read digitized music Decode Process into audible sound Execute Send the sound to headset Store Store the downloaded music

23 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > CPU Characteristics The first consideration in selecting a computer is typically its speed: how quickly it can carry out such tasks as loading a program, opening a file, and writing to a CD.

24 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > CPU Speed System Clock is a series of Electronic pulses at predetermined rate Synchronize processing activity Typically takes four clock cycles to finish an instruction cycle. Issue? Heat

25 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Other Performance Factors Cache Intelligent storage unit Works like a phone book Stores the most frequently used information for quick retrieval. More expensive than RAM. L1, L2, L3

26 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Other Performance Factors Memory Hierarchy

27 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Other Performance Factors Byte is 8 bits A measure of storage space Wordlength is a measure of processing capability Number of bits the CPU can process at once. 64 vs. 32 bit processors Not always a good performance indicator: The software should support longer wordlengths!

28 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Computer Performance ~ Factors

29 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > So How To Decide about CPU Performance? What is the truest measure of a CPU performance? The number of instructions the processor can process in one second. Million Instructions per Second (MIPS) The number of floating point operations per second (FLOPS)

30 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Multiprocessing In multiprocessing systems, while the CPU is carrying out general instructions co-processors perform specific types of other instructions. Example? GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) CPU vs. GPU Physics processors Physx

31 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Parallel processing Using several microprocessor to work on multiple instructions at the same time Challenges? Making the processors work efficiently in parallel Data/instruction dependencies Special types of software Grid computing Parallel processing with different types of computers

32 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Moores Law Gordon Moore, cofounder of Intel, observed in 1965 that the continued advances in technological innovation made it possible to reduce the size of transistors, doubling their density on the chip every two years.

33 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Storage Key Terms Read-only Memory Magnetic Storage Optical Storage CD-ROM DVD CD-RW Solid State Storage Flash memory card USB

34 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > System Storage System storage is storage that is used by a computer system for standard operations. Forms of system storage, include RAM Cache Video RAM ROM CMOS

35 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Graphics Memory Graphics memory, sometimes called video RAM or VRAM, is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video images.

36 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Secondary Storage Secondary storage is used to store data more permanently without the need for electricity. Internet storage: The wayback machine Tape Drive DVD-RW One of the storage silo robots in NERSCs 8.8-petabyte High Performance Storage System. Mini Cards

37 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Secondary Storage 23 Storage Media Type Magnetic storage devices use the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM. Microdrives can store gigabytes of data on a disk one or two inches in size. Optical storage media store bits using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective surface. Solid State storage devices use flash memory to store bits.flash memory

38 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Microdrives from Toshiba Microdrives from Toshiba provide iPods with their ultra high storage capacity.iPods Magnetic Storage Hard Disk Drives Magnetic Tape High-capacity Disks & Floppy Disks (outdated) Microdrives

39 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Optical Media CD, DVD, Blu-laser Disk (BD)

40 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Solid State A flash memory card is a chip that, unlike RAM, is nonvolatile and keeps its memory without the need for electricity. Universal Serial Bus or USB is a standard that allows a wide variety of devices to connect to a computer through a common port. USB Flash Drives use flash memory to provide high capacity storage through the USB port.

41 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Input, Output, and Expansion Key Terms Input device Output device Touch screen Game controller Display resolution LCD

42 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > I/O Concepts An input device assists in capturing and entering raw data into the computer system. An output device allows you to observe the results of computer processing with one or more of your senses.

43 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > I/O Concepts Speed and Functionality Human vs. Machine Readable Data Source Data Automation

44 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Input Devices Keyboard, Mouse, Trackball Touch screen, stylus, kiosks Microphone, speech recognition Gamepad, other game-centered devices Digital cameras Scanning devices

45 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Output Devices Displays Liquid crystal display (LCD) or Flat panel Printers and Plotters Sound Systems

46 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Selecting and Purchasing a Computer

47 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Researching a Computer Purchase Web sites such as and can help you decide on a computer type and platform.

48 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Online Vendors Online merchants allow you to compare packages from varying manufacturers to find the best configuration and price.

49 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Strategies for Computer Shopping Choose type: notebook, desktop, tablet, smart phone, or netbook Choose platform Windows/Mac/Linux Choose Manufacturer Choose Model Select Add-ons

50 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Helpful Links for Computer Shopping Research Computer Retailers Direct from Manufacturer

51 Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Chapter 2 Questions?


Download ppt "Succeeding with Technology 4 th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need > Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off the ringer. The Digital Revolution."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google