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Hardware Designed to Meet the Need

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1 Hardware Designed to Meet the Need
Chapter 2 Hardware Designed to Meet the Need The Digital Revolution Integrated Circuits and Processing Storage Input, Output, and Expansion Selecting and Purchasing a Computer

2 The Value of Going Digital
Anything that can be expressed through words, numbers, sounds, pictures, and even scents can be digitized. Digital information is easy to manipulate. Digital information is easy to copy and transfer. Digital information is long lasting. Digitization standardizes the format of all different types of data and information leading to…

3 Digital Convergence Digital convergence is the trend to merge multiple digital services into one device.

4 Integrated Circuits and Processing
Key Terms Consider PC Choices Transistor Integrated circuit Central Processing Unit (CPU) Motherboard Arithmetic/logic unit Control unit Random Access Memory (RAM) The machine cycle Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Gigaflop Moore’s Law

5 CompUSA Sony Apple Let’s go shopping!
In order to shop intelligently, you must understand the basics about processors, storage, input/output, and peripherals.

6 Key Components Processor Memory Storage Video OS Removable Storage
Networking Security OS

7 Computer Hardware Evolution
A Binary System allows the use of switches to represent states. This in turn makes computing possible. Input Storage Processing Output

8 Computer Hardware Evolution
Computers used different things as digital switches: Actual Switches Relays Vacuum tubes Transistors Eniac: The first general purpose computer Charles Babage Computer

9 Transistor A transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

10 Transistor A transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

11 Transistor A transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

12 Integrated Circuit An Integrated Circuit (chip) combines transistors and capacitors in a tiny module to store and process bits and bytes in today’s digital electronic devices.

13 The Central Processing Unit
The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a group of integrated circuits that work together to perform the processing in a computer system.

14 Microprocessor The 8080 Microprocessor Today’s technology allows us to pack all the CPU in a small integrated circuit called a Microprocessor. The Rabbit 4000

15 The Motherboard The motherboard is the primary circuit board of a computing device that houses the digital device’s circuitry including the microprocessor and memory.

16 Processing Processing is the act of manipulating data as defined by a set of instructions. The instruction set a set of predefined instructions that the CPU can understand.

17 CPU Components Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): contains the circuitry to carry out the instructions in the processors instruction set. Control Unit: sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data throughout the system. Registers: hold the data and instructions currently being processed (~300 bytes).

18 Latest Technology Multicore technology refers to housing more than one CPU on a chip. Dual-core processors and quad-core processors use two and four CPUs on one chip that work together to provide twice and four times the speed of traditional single-core chips.

19 Processing The microprocessor accesses instructions stored in memory over the system bus. Random Access Memory (RAM) is temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.

20 System Bus The system bus connects the CPU to the chipset, and through it to RAM and other components on the motherboard.

21 Processing – The Machine Cycle
The four stages of the machine cycle are (1) fetch the instruction from memory, (2) decode and (3) execute the instruction, then (4) store the results.

22 The Machine Cycle Examples
ipod Fetch Read digitized music Decode Process into audible sound Execute Send the sound to headset Store Store the downloaded music

23 CPU Characteristics The first consideration in selecting a computer is typically its speed: how quickly it can carry out such tasks as loading a program, opening a file, and writing to a CD.

24 CPU Speed System Clock is a series of Electronic pulses at predetermined rate Synchronize processing activity Typically takes four clock cycles to finish an instruction cycle. Issue? Heat

25 Other Performance Factors
Cache Intelligent storage unit Works like a phone book Stores the most frequently used information for quick retrieval. More expensive than RAM. L1, L2, L3

26 Other Performance Factors
Memory Hierarchy

27 Other Performance Factors
Byte is 8 bits A measure of storage space Wordlength is a measure of processing capability Number of bits the CPU can process at once. 64 vs. 32 bit processors Not always a good performance indicator: The software should support longer wordlengths!

28 Computer Performance ~ Factors

29 So How To Decide about CPU Performance?
What is the truest measure of a CPU performance? The number of instructions the processor can process in one second. Million Instructions per Second (MIPS) The number of floating point operations per second (FLOPS)

30 Multiprocessing In multiprocessing systems, while the CPU is carrying out general instructions co-processors perform specific types of other instructions. Example? GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) CPU vs. GPU Physics processors Physx

31 Parallel processing Parallel processing
Using several microprocessor to work on multiple instructions at the same time Challenges? Making the processors work efficiently in parallel Data/instruction dependencies Special types of software Grid computing Parallel processing with different types of computers

32 Moore’s Law Gordon Moore, cofounder of Intel, observed in 1965 that the continued advances in technological innovation made it possible to reduce the size of transistors, doubling their density on the chip every two years.

33 Storage Key Terms Read-only Memory Magnetic Storage Optical Storage
CD-ROM DVD CD-RW Solid State Storage Flash memory card USB

34 System Storage System storage is storage that is used by a computer system for standard operations. Forms of system storage, include RAM Cache Video RAM ROM CMOS

35 Graphics Memory Graphics memory, sometimes called video RAM or VRAM, is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video images.

36 Secondary Storage DVD-RW Secondary storage is used to store data more permanently without the need for electricity. Internet storage: The wayback machine Tape Drive One of the storage silo robots in NERSC’s 8.8-petabyte High Performance Storage System. Mini Cards

37 Secondary Storage Storage Media Type
Magnetic storage devices use the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM. Microdrives can store gigabytes of data on a disk one or two inches in size. Optical storage media store bits using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective surface. Solid State storage devices use flash memory to store bits. 23

38 Magnetic Storage Hard Disk Drives Magnetic Tape
High-capacity Disks & Floppy Disks (outdated) Microdrives Microdrives from Toshiba provide iPods with their ultra high storage capacity.

39 Optical Media CD, DVD, Blu-laser Disk (BD)

40 Solid State Universal Serial Bus or USB is a standard that allows a wide variety of devices to connect to a computer through a common port. A flash memory card is a chip that, unlike RAM, is nonvolatile and keeps its memory without the need for electricity. USB Flash Drives use flash memory to provide high capacity storage through the USB port.

41 Input, Output, and Expansion
Key Terms Input device Output device Touch screen Game controller Display resolution LCD

42 I/O Concepts An input device assists in capturing and entering raw data into the computer system. An output device allows you to observe the results of computer processing with one or more of your senses.

43 I/O Concepts Speed and Functionality Human vs. Machine Readable Data
Source Data Automation

44 Input Devices Keyboard, Mouse, Trackball Touch screen, stylus, kiosks
Microphone, speech recognition Gamepad, other game-centered devices Digital cameras Scanning devices

45 Output Devices Displays Liquid crystal display (LCD) or Flat panel
Printers and Plotters Sound Systems

46 Selecting and Purchasing a Computer

47 Researching a Computer Purchase
Web sites such as and can help you decide on a computer type and platform.

48 Online Vendors Online merchants allow you to compare packages from varying manufacturers to find the best configuration and price.

49 Strategies for Computer Shopping
Choose type: notebook, desktop, tablet, smart phone, or netbook Choose platform Windows/Mac/Linux Choose Manufacturer Choose Model Select Add-ons

50 Helpful Links for Computer Shopping
Research Computer Retailers Direct from Manufacturer

51 Chapter 2 Questions? 51

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