Presentation on theme: "Hardware Designed to Meet the Need"— Presentation transcript:
1Hardware Designed to Meet the Need Chapter 2Hardware Designed to Meet the NeedThe Digital RevolutionIntegrated Circuits and ProcessingStorageInput, Output, and ExpansionSelecting and Purchasing a Computer
2The Value of Going Digital Anything that can be expressed through words, numbers, sounds, pictures, and even scents can be digitized.Digital information is easy to manipulate.Digital information is easy to copy and transfer.Digital information is long lasting.Digitization standardizes the format of all different types of data and information leading to…
3Digital ConvergenceDigital convergence is the trend to merge multiple digital services into one device.
4Integrated Circuits and Processing Key TermsConsider PC ChoicesTransistorIntegrated circuitCentral Processing Unit (CPU)MotherboardArithmetic/logic unitControl unitRandom Access Memory (RAM)The machine cycleMegahertz (MHz)Gigahertz (GHz)GigaflopMoore’s Law
5CompUSA Sony Apple Let’s go shopping! In order to shop intelligently, you must understand the basics about processors, storage, input/output, and peripherals.
6Key Components Processor Memory Storage Video OS Removable Storage NetworkingSecurityOS
7Computer Hardware Evolution A Binary System allows the use of switches to represent states.This in turn makes computing possible.InputStorageProcessingOutput
8Computer Hardware Evolution Computers used different things as digital switches:Actual SwitchesRelaysVacuum tubesTransistorsEniac: The first general purpose computerCharles Babage Computer
9TransistorA transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.
10TransistorA transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.
11TransistorA transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.
12Integrated CircuitAn Integrated Circuit (chip) combines transistors and capacitors in a tiny module to store and process bits and bytes in today’s digital electronic devices.
13The Central Processing Unit The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a group of integrated circuits that work together to perform the processing in a computer system.
14MicroprocessorThe 8080 MicroprocessorToday’s technology allows us to pack all the CPU in a small integrated circuit called a Microprocessor.The Rabbit 4000
15The MotherboardThe motherboard is the primary circuit board of a computing device that houses the digital device’s circuitry including the microprocessor and memory.
16ProcessingProcessing is the act of manipulating data as defined by a set of instructions.The instruction set a set of predefined instructions that the CPU can understand.
17CPU ComponentsArithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): contains the circuitry to carry out the instructions in the processors instruction set.Control Unit: sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data throughout the system.Registers: hold the data and instructions currently being processed (~300 bytes).
18Latest TechnologyMulticore technology refers to housing more than one CPU on a chip.Dual-core processors and quad-core processors use two and four CPUs on one chip that work together to provide twice and four times the speed of traditional single-core chips.
19ProcessingThe microprocessor accesses instructions stored in memory over the system bus.Random Access Memory (RAM) is temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.
20System BusThe system bus connects the CPU to the chipset, and through it to RAM and other components on the motherboard.
21Processing – The Machine Cycle The four stages of the machine cycle are (1) fetch the instruction from memory, (2) decode and (3) execute the instruction, then (4) store the results.
22The Machine Cycle Examples ipodFetchRead digitized musicDecodeProcess into audible soundExecuteSend the sound to headsetStoreStore the downloaded music
23CPU CharacteristicsThe first consideration in selecting a computer is typically its speed: how quickly it can carry out such tasks as loading a program, opening a file, and writing to a CD.
24CPU SpeedSystem Clock is a series of Electronic pulses at predetermined rateSynchronize processing activityTypically takes four clock cycles to finish an instruction cycle.Issue?Heat
25Other Performance Factors CacheIntelligent storage unitWorks like a phone bookStores the most frequently used information for quick retrieval.More expensive than RAM.L1, L2, L3
27Other Performance Factors Byte is 8 bitsA measure of storage spaceWordlength is a measure of processing capabilityNumber of bits the CPU can process at once.64 vs. 32 bit processorsNot always a good performance indicator:The software should support longer wordlengths!
29So How To Decide about CPU Performance? What is the truest measure of a CPU performance?The number of instructions the processor can process in one second.Million Instructions per Second (MIPS)The number of floating point operations per second (FLOPS)
30MultiprocessingIn multiprocessing systems, while the CPU is carrying out general instructions co-processors perform specific types of other instructions.Example?GPU (Graphics Processing Unit)CPU vs. GPUPhysics processors Physx
31Parallel processing Parallel processing Using several microprocessor to work on multiple instructions at the same timeChallenges?Making the processors work efficiently in parallelData/instruction dependenciesSpecial types of softwareGrid computingParallel processing with different types of computers
32Moore’s LawGordon Moore, cofounder of Intel, observed in 1965 that the continued advances in technological innovation made it possible to reduce the size of transistors, doubling their density on the chip every two years.
33Storage Key Terms Read-only Memory Magnetic Storage Optical Storage CD-ROMDVDCD-RWSolid State StorageFlash memory cardUSB
34System StorageSystem storage is storage that is used by a computer system for standard operations.Forms of system storage, includeRAMCacheVideo RAMROMCMOS
35Graphics MemoryGraphics memory, sometimes called video RAM or VRAM, is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video images.
36Secondary StorageDVD-RWSecondary storage is used to store data more permanently without the need for electricity.Internet storage:The wayback machineTape DriveOne of the storage silo robots in NERSC’s 8.8-petabyte High Performance Storage System.Mini Cards
37Secondary Storage Storage Media Type Magnetic storage devices use the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM.Microdrives can store gigabytes of data on a disk one or two inches in size.Optical storage media store bits using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective surface.Solid State storage devices use flash memory to store bits.23
38Magnetic Storage Hard Disk Drives Magnetic Tape High-capacity Disks & Floppy Disks (outdated)MicrodrivesMicrodrives from Toshiba provide iPods with their ultra high storage capacity.
40Solid StateUniversal Serial Bus or USB is a standard that allows a wide variety of devices to connect to a computer through a common port.A flash memory card is a chip that, unlike RAM, is nonvolatile and keeps its memory without the need for electricity.USB Flash Drives use flash memory to provide high capacity storage through the USB port.
42I/O ConceptsAn input device assists in capturing and entering raw data into the computer system.An output device allows you to observe the results of computer processing with one or more of your senses.
43I/O Concepts Speed and Functionality Human vs. Machine Readable Data Source Data Automation