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An Introduction to the American National Standards Institute and the United States Standards System Last update: April 2008
© 2008 ANSI Slide 2 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process The international language of commerce is standards. Source: Former U.S. Secretary of Commerce – Donald Evans Report on Standards and Competitiveness – Removing Standards-Related Trade Barriers Through Effective Collaboration May 18, 2004
© 2008 ANSI Slide 3 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Standards Developers and Conformity Assessment Bodies Government Acceptance Commercial and Consumer Acceptance Standardization: A Global Community
© 2008 ANSI Slide 4 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process The U.S. Standardization Model One Approach Among Many in the World n The U.S. standardization model includes both standards-setting and conformity assessment programs u resembles the nations political (federal) structure u resembles the nations economic structure F sector-based and driven by market needs u relies strongly on diversity and decentralization
© 2008 ANSI Slide 5 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process The U.S. approach to market relevance n In the U.S. alone, there are more than 95,000 recognized standards. n These documents are being developed by u standards developing organizations (SDOs), with the twenty largest of these organizations producing approximately 80% of the standards u at least 150 consortia u hundreds of committees addressing the technical requirements of standards
© 2008 ANSI Slide 6 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Cardinal Principles of the U.S. System Transparency Openness Due Process Consensus
© 2008 ANSI Slide 7 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Guiding Principles n Standards should meet societal and market needs and should not be developed to act as barriers to trade n The U.S. endorses the globally accepted standardization principles of the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement u Transparency u Openness u Impartiality u Effectiveness and relevance u Consensus u Performance-based u Coherence u Due process u Technical Assistance u Flexible u Timely u Balanced
© 2008 ANSI Slide 8 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process United States Standards Strategy n The United States Standards Strategy (USSS) provides a vision, purpose and common framework that can be used by U.S. stakeholders to achieve their respective standardization goals. u Implementation of the Strategy is the responsibility of all interested parties. n Approved in December 2005, the USSS is a revision of the National Standards Strategy for the United States. u ANSI served as an administrator and facilitator during the revision process. u The document represents the vision of a broad cross-section of standards stakeholders and reflects the diversity of the U.S. standards system.
© 2008 ANSI Slide 9 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Examples: Current Standardization Initiatives n Homeland security issues such as biometrics, radiation detector systems, safe harbors and others n Nanotechnology terminology and nomenclature n Healthcare information technology n Identity theft protection and identity management n Alternative energy resources / alternative fuels
© 2008 ANSI Slide 10 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Coordination and Harmonization Activities ANSI Standards Panels 2003 Homeland Security Standards Panel 2004 Nanotechnology Standards Panel 2005 Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel 2006 ID Theft Prevention and ID Management Standards Panel 2007 Biofuels Standards Coordination Panel
© 2008 ANSI Slide 11 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Coordination and Harmonization Activities ANSI Standards Panels (continued) Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel Contract with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to support widespread interoperability among healthcare software applications, accelerate decision making, and eliminate barriers to standards harmonization. Nanotechnology Standards Panel Established at the request of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President of the United States to facilitate the development of standards supporting nomenclature/terminology; materials properties; and testing, measurement and characterization procedures. Homeland Security Standards Panel Partnership with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to accelerate development and adoption of consensus standards critical to homeland security. Support also provided to the 9-11 Commission for private sector preparedness.
© 2008 ANSI Slide 12 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Coordination and Harmonization Activities ANSI Standards Panels (continued) ID Theft Prevention and ID Management Standards Panel Partnering with the Better Business Bureau to facilitate within 18 months the timely development of voluntary consensus standards aimed at minimizing the scope and scale of identity theft and fraud. Biofuels Standards Coordination Panel Launched in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy and several other federal agencies to promote the development and compatibility of voluntary consensus standards and related conformity assessment programs necessary to support the large- scale commoditization of biofuels.
© 2008 ANSI Slide 13 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Coordination and Harmonization Activities Next on the horizon... Energy management Chemical controls and regulationsImport safety / Supply Chain Biotechnology
© 2008 ANSI Slide 15 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process n Facilitates U.S. standardization policy development n Promotes U.S. standardization policies globally ANSI is the bridge for standardization u between industry and government u among and within industries
© 2008 ANSI Slide 16 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process n Roles and Responsibilities u to accredit U.S. Standards Developers, U.S. Technical Advisory Groups and conformity assessment programs u to ensure integrity of the U.S. voluntary consensus standards system u to provide regional and international access u to offer a neutral policy forum
© 2008 ANSI Slide 17 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Mission: To enhance the global competitiveness of U.S. business and the American quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems and ensuring their integrity. A Private- and Public-Sector Partnership Since 1918 ANSI is not a government agency or a standards developer.
© 2008 ANSI Slide 18 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Industry Trade Associations Professional Societies Government Consumers and Labor Interests Standards Developers Other Stakeholders Academic Institutions
© 2008 ANSI Slide 19 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process COMPANY MEMBER FORUM CONSUMER INTEREST FORUM ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBER FORUM GOVERNMENT MEMBER FORUM BOARD OF DIRECTORS
© 2008 ANSI Slide 21 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process U.S. PRIVATE SECTOR U.S. DOMICILED STANDARDS DEVELOPING BODIES OTHER FOREIGN STANDARDIZATION BODIES INTERNATIONAL STANDARDIZATION BODIES REGIONAL STANDARDIZATION BODIES U.S. GOVERNMENT (PUBLIC SECTOR)
Domestic Standards Programs
© 2008 ANSI Slide 23 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process American National Standards Institute API American Petroleum Institute API American Petroleum Institute NFPA National Fire Protection Association NFPA National Fire Protection Association ICC International Code Council ICC International Code Council CSA America SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Society of Automotive Engineers Examples of U.S. Standards Organizations Accredited by ANSI ASTM International ASABE American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ASABE American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers UL Inc. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. UL Inc. Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Others
© 2008 ANSI Slide 24 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process ANSI as an Accreditor n ANSI accreditation, whether as a standards developer, Technical Advisory Group, or a certification program, provides an assurance of: u Openness u Balance u Due process u Transparency u Consensus
© 2008 ANSI Slide 25 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process American National Standards (ANS) Developers n Currently there are approximately 200 ANSI-accredited standards developers F Not all standards developed by these organizations are submitted for consideration as ANS n There are approximately 10,000 American National Standards
© 2008 ANSI Slide 26 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process ANS Development Cycle IDEAS COMMENTS VOTE
International and Regional Participation
© 2008 ANSI Slide 28 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Adopt International Standards as American National Standards (where they meet the needs of the user community) Submit American National Standards for adoption as regional or International Standards Ensure that U.S. positions (policy and technical) are accept- ed by international and regional standards organizations The U.S. will....
© 2008 ANSI Slide 29 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process U.S. Technical Advisory Groups (TAGs) n Similar to Accredited Standards Developers, U.S. TAGs are accredited by ANSI and must follow the Institutes cardinal principles. n ANSI sets policy for U.S. TAGs because the Institute is recognized as the official U.S. member of ISO and, through its U.S. National Committee (USNC), is the official U.S. member of IEC. n ANSI pays total dues for U.S. membership in ISO and IEC and represents the U.S. in regional and global forums.
© 2008 ANSI Slide 30 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process U.S. Interface to IEC and ISO ISO Technical Committee ISO or IEC/TC XX Subject Area ANSI-Accredited or USNC/IEC Approved U.S. Technical Advisory Group TC XXX / SC 1 Subcommittee TC XXX / SC 2 Subcommittee U.S. TAG /TC XX Subject Area U.S. TAG TC XXX / SC 1 Subcommittee U.S. TAG TC XXX / SC 2 Subcommittee -----
© 2008 ANSI Slide 31 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process ISO Technical Committee Subject Area International Organization for Standardization U.S. Member of the ISO U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) and its Administrator OPTIONAL Secretariat, ISO TC or SC ISO Example: Organizational Relationships
© 2008 ANSI Slide 32 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process U.S. National Committee of the IEC n International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) – Geneva, Switzerland u Comprised of 60 National Committees (member nations) n U.S. National Committee is one of u 5 permanent members of the Council Board of 15 u 15 members of the Standardization Management Board u participates in 92% of Technical Committees/Subcommittees u assigned Secretariat for 15% of TC/SC Secretariats
© 2008 ANSI Slide 33 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process U.S. Member Body of the ISO n International Organization for Standardization (ISO) – Geneva, Switzerland u Comprised of 159 National Standards Bodies n ANSI is one of u 5 permanent members to the ISO Council of 18 u 4 permanent members to the Technical Management Board of 12 n ANSI and its members u participate in 80% of Technical Committees u administer 20% of TC Secretariats
© 2008 ANSI Slide 34 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process International Organization for Standardization International Electrotechnical Commission International Telecommunications Union
© 2008 ANSI Slide 35 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Regional Standards Bodies n COPANT (Pan-American Standards Commission) u ANSI has membership on behalf of the U.S. n PASC (Pacific Area Standards Congress) u ANSI has membership on behalf of the U.S. n CEN (European Committee for Standardization) u ANSI has access as a liaison via the ISO/CEN Vienna Agreement n CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization) u ANSI has access as a liaison via the IEC/CENELEC Dresden Agreement n ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) u U.S. companies which qualify may apply for membership
© 2008 ANSI Slide 36 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process COPANT (Pan-American Standards Commission) n Standards setting body for Latin and South American countries u Founded as the Pan American Technical Standards Committee in 1949 to develop regional standards u Executive Secretariat is in Caracas, Venezuela n Currently 28 Active and 7 Adherent member countries n Oriented towards international standards, but develops regional technical standards when none exists at the international level
© 2008 ANSI Slide 37 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process PASC ( Pacific Area Standards Congress) n Founded in 1972 in Honolulu, Hawaii n Currently 22 members u Membership open to any country or territory bordering on the Pacific Rim whose standards organization is a member of ISO and IEC, or national organization that PASC determines is capable of making a contribution u Secretariat responsibility rotates among members n Does not set standards, rather coordinates on standards issues
© 2008 ANSI Slide 38 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Standards Bodies of the European Union n European Standardization Policy u Established in 1984 in the General Guidelines for Co-operation between the EU and EFTA and the European Standards bodies u Goals are to strengthen the competitiveness of European industry and to improve the functioning of the European market u New Approach Directives state that the European Union shall look towards the private sector to develop standards n Three organizations (CEN, CENELEC, and ETSI) now constitute the European forum for standardization u These bodies are made up of diverse parties that form more than 1,500 technical groups u Work to develop national standards within the European Union has essentially ceased
Conformity Assessment Programs
© 2008 ANSI Slide 40 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Characteristics of the U.S. Conformity Assessment System n Conformity assessment activities are not centrally organized n Activities are a mix of government (regulatory programs) and private sector (market-based programs) n Approaches vary among sectors
© 2008 ANSI Slide 41 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Conformity Assessment Goals n Promote and achieve global acceptance of products and services through conformity assessment activities for u Product certifiers u Personnel certifiers u ISO 9000 & registrars (via the ANSI/ANAB partnership) u International Accreditation Forum (IAF) u Laboratory Accreditation Working Group - National Council for Laboratory Accreditation
© 2008 ANSI Slide 42 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process National Conformity Assessment Principles Document (NCAP) n Articulates principles for U.S. conformity assessment activities u Guidance document to be considered in conjunction with the United States Standards Strategy u Improves the ability of consumers, buyers, sellers, regulators and other interested parties to have confidence in the processes of providing Certification services u Approved in 2002 u Implementation is the responsibility of all U.S. interests
© 2008 ANSI Slide 43 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process ANSI Accreditation Programs Conformity Assessment Product Certifiers ISO 9000 / ISO Certifiers Personnel Certifiers Standards Developing Organizations and U.S. TAGs ISO/IEC Guide 65 ISO/IEC Guides 62 and 66 ISO/IEC ANSI Procedures Standards
Information and Education Services
© 2008 ANSI Slide 45 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Knowledge Provides Advantage ANSI as an Information Provider n ANSI provides access to timely, relevant, and actionable information for its members and customers.
© 2008 ANSI Slide 46 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Web-Based Information Tools n ANSI Online (http://www.ansi.org) News and information u Standards Action for public notice u ANSI Reporter for news and editorial coverage n NSSN: A National Resource for Global Standards (http://www.nssn.org) Key-word or document number searches; bibliographic data on standards; up-to-date reports on new development projects, and much more. n Electronic Standards Store (http://webstore.ansi.org) E-commerce site for real-time electronic publication sales
© 2008 ANSI Slide 47 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Education & Training Services n Promote use and value of standards n Promote Strategic Standardization Management n Provide training on standardization participation, leadership, and administration
© 2008 ANSI Slide 49 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Benefits to Companies n Protection u The strong voice, influence and networks necessary to help ensure that standards are not written that will exclude your products, processes or technologies n Knowledge u Early awareness of new requirements u Close customer and supplier contact u Early assessment of new market directions n Positioning u Influence at the leading edges of technology
© 2008 ANSI Slide 50 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Benefits to Organizations n Global relevance n Self-regulation n Shared costs n Reduced liability n Reduced redundancy n Marketplace acceptance of standards
© 2008 ANSI Slide 51 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Benefits to Consumers n Greater selection n Easier choices n Better and consistent quality n Lower costs n Enhanced safety & health
© 2008 ANSI Slide 52 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process Benefits to Government n Lower costs for procurement and regulatory agencies n Increased U.S. competitiveness, employment and economic growth n Private sector cooperation n World Trade Organization (WTO) compliance n Legislative compliance
Role of the Government
© 2008 ANSI Slide 54 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process The Role of Government n In the U.S., no single government agency has control over standards. u Each government agency determines which standards meet its needs. u The agency is responsible for determining whether a private sector standard already exists that is appropriate for its needs. F If so, they will use the private sector standard. F If not, the agency is expected to work with the private sector to develop the needed standard.
© 2008 ANSI Slide 55 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA) of 1995 n Public Law u Signed into law on 7 March 1996 u Guidance document is OMB Circular A-119 n Encourages federal agencies to utilize voluntary consensus standards where feasible n Encourages federal participation in voluntary consensus standards development activities n Designates NIST as coordinator (no budgetary or policy authority) of government standards policy activities
© 2008 ANSI Slide 56 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process U.S. Approach to Influencing Global Standards and Trade Issues ANSIU.S. Government Global ISO and IECWTO Americas COPANTFTAA Pacific Rim PASCAPEC Europe CEN / CENELEC / ETSITABD
© 2008 ANSI Slide 58 Introduction to ANSI and the U.S. Standardization Process For more information: HeadquartersOperations 1819 L Street, NW 25 West 43rd Street Sixth Floor Fourth Floor Washington, DC New York, NY Tel: Tel: Fax: Fax: | webstore.ansi.org | American National Standards Institute
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