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1 Learning Module Series Introduction to Standards and Trade.

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1 1 Learning Module Series Introduction to Standards and Trade

2 2 Outline ASTM International Overview US Standards System US Governments Role World Trade Organization

3 3 ASTM International – An Overview Organized in 1898 The largest U.S.-based standards developer Non-governmental, not- for-profit organization

4 4 What is a Standard? Technical document developed by consensus

5 5 ASTM International Standards Development Process Provides a management system for the development of voluntary, consensus standards Does not provide certification, testing or accreditation services

6 6 ASTM Technical Committees 140 technical committees Consumer Products Steel Petroleum Construction/Building Plastics Paint Textiles Environmental Medical Devices Many, many more

7 7 Global Use and Application Over 75 nations utilize ASTM standards in their regulations or as the basis of their national standards China – 643 Colombia – 1169 Egypt – 392 South Africa - 539

8 8 U.S. Standardization in General No single organization, public or private, controls the U.S. standards development system In the U.S. there are multiple methods of standards development (400 developers) The system is coordinated - publicly and privately The U.S. system is unregulated, market-oriented and diverse

9 9 ANSI and the U.S. Standards Strategy Developed first in 2000 and revised in 2005 Facilitated by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Common vision for national and international standardization

10 10 Conformity Assessment Any activity to determine, directly or indirectly, that a process, product, or service meets relevant standards and fulfills relevant requirements i.e. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Europe – Notified Body

11 11 U.S. Federal Regulation The U.S. Administrative Procedure Act allows executive branch government agencies to develop detailed rules and regulations through a public "rulemaking" process where the public is allowed to comment. After a period of time, the rules and regulations are usually published in the Federal Register.

12 12 Support and Mandate for Government Participation …all Federal agencies and departments shall use technical standards that are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies, using such technical standards as a means to carry out policy objectives or activities determined by the agencies and departments….and shall, when such participation is in the public interest…participate with such bodies in the development of technical standards. P.L National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA)

13 13 US Government and Trade USTR Trade Policy ITAs Standards and Competitiveness Report

14 14 Free Trade Agreements Eliminate tariffs, quotas and preferences on most (if not all) goods between trade partners Help level the international playing field and encourage foreign governments to adopt open and transparent rulemaking procedures, as well as non-discriminatory laws and regulations

15 15 Rules of Trade World Trade Organization (WTO) oEstablished in 1995 to deal with the rules of trade between nations at a global or near-global level. Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT) Prohibits use of regulations, standards, and conformity assessment (technical measures) as barriers to trade

16 16 WTO / TBT Principles ASTM Principles Transparency Openness Impartiality and consensus Effectiveness and relevance Coherence Consideration of developing nations Standards as Key Components of Trade

17 17 Standards as Key Components of Trade TBT Inquiry Point Each WTO member is required to report to the WTO Secretariat in Geneva, proposed central government regulations and provide a 60 day comment period to allow other WTO members to review and comment on the proposal. National Center for Standards and Certification Information

18 18 Barriers to Trade Disputes The WTOs Dispute Settlement Body (DSB), and in particular its Appellate Body, have made it very difficult for WTO Members to use technical regulations (TBT Agreement) and health regulations (SPS Agreement) as a form of disguised protectionism, and several Members have taken advantage of the DSB for this purpose.

19 19 Summary/Conclusion Standards are key documents for trade ASTM standards are international standards that are used globally The WTO defines the principles of international standards ASTM is committed to the concept of multiple paths to international standards

20 20 Contact Information Jim Olshefsky Director, External Relations Anthony Quinn Director, Public Policy and International Trade

21 21 ASTM International Learning Module Series Thank You

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